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3rd Edition

Power-Switching Converters



ISBN 9781439815335
Published December 20, 2010 by CRC Press
654 Pages - 488 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Significantly expanded and updated with extensive revisions, new material, and a new chapter on emerging applications of switching converters, Power-Switching Converters, Third Edition offers the same trusted, accessible, and comprehensive information as its bestselling predecessors. Similar to the two previous editions, this book can be used for an introductory as well as a more advanced course.

Chapters begin with an introduction to switching converters and basic switching converter topologies. Entry level chapters continue with a discussion of resonant converters, isolated switching converters, and the control schemes of switching converters. Skipping to chapters 10 and 11, the subject matter involves an examination of interleaved converters and switched capacitor converters to round out and complete the overview of switching converter topologies.

More detailed chapters include the continuous time-modeling and discrete-time modeling of switching converters as well as analog control and digital control. Advanced material covers tools for the simulation of switching converters (including both PSpice and Matlab simulations) and the basic concepts necessary to understand various actual and emerging applications for switching converters, such as power factor correction, LED drivers, low-noise converters, and switching converters topologies for solar and fuel cells.

The final chapter contains several complete design examples, including experimental designs that may be used as technical references or for class laboratory projects. Supplementary information is available at crcpress.com including slides, PSpice examples (designed to run on the OrCAD 9.2 student version and PSIM software) and MATLAB scripts.

Continuing the august tradition of its predecessors, Power-Switching Converters, Third Edition provides introductory and advanced information on all aspects of power switching converters to give students the solid foundation and applicable knowledge required to advance in this growing field.

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION TO SWITCHING CONVERTERS

Introduction

   Industry trends

Linear converter

   Linear series-pass regulator

   Linear shunt regulator

Switching converters

   Basic switching converter with resistive load

   Basic switching converter with RL load

Principles of steady state converter analysis

   Inductor volt-second balance

   Capacitor charge balance

Problems

BASIC SWITCHING CONVERTER TOPOLOGIES

Introduction

Buck converter

   Continuous mode

   Discontinuous mode

Synchronous rectifier

Ripple steering

Boost converter

   Continuous mode

   Discontinuous mode

Buck-boost converter

   Continuous mode

   Discontinuous mode

Cûk converter

SEPIC converter

   Continuous conduction mode

   Design considerations

Zeta converter

Converter realization with non-ideal components

   Inductor model

   Capacitor model

   Semiconductor losses

   Effect of semiconductor losses on the output voltage

Problems

RESONANT CONVERTERS

Introduction

Parallel resonant circuit - A review

Series resonant circuit - A review

Classification of quasi-resonant switches

Zero-current-switching quasi-resonant buck converter

Zero-current-switching quasi-resonant boost converter

Zero-voltage-switching quasi-resonant buck converter

Zero-voltage-switching quasi-resonant boost converter

Series-loaded resonant converter

Discontinuous mode ( < fs < fn)

Continuous mode (fs > fn or above-resonant mode)

Continuous mode (fn < fs < fn or below-resonant mode)

Parallel-loaded resonant converter

   Discontinuous mode ( < f < fn)

   Continuous mode (fs > f or above-resonant mode)

   Continuous mode (fn < fs < fn or below-resonant mode)

Problems

ISOLATED SWITCHING CONVERTERS

Introduction

Forward converter

Two-switch forward converter

Push-pull converter

Half-bridge switching converter

Full-bridge switching converter

Fly back converter

Two-switch fly back converter

Dual active bridge converter

   Power flow control

Zero-current-switching quasi-resonant half-bridge converter

Problems

CONTROL SCHEMES OF SWITCHING CONVERTERS

Introduction

Pulse-width modulation

   Voltage-mode PWM scheme

   Current-mode PWM scheme

      Instability for D>%

      Compensation with external ramp

Hysteresis control: switching current source

   Steady-state analysis during ton

Commercial integrated circuit controllers

   Fixed-frequency voltage-mode SG controller

   Variable-frequency voltage-mode TL controller

   Fixed-frequency current-mode UC PWM controller

   TinySwitch-II family of low power off-line switchers

Control schemes for resonant converters

   Off-line controllers for resonant converters

   L operation

Problems

CONTINUOUS-TIME MODELING OF SWITCHING CONVERTERS

Introduction

Switching converter analysis using classical control techniques

   Basic linear model of the open-loop switching converter

   PWM modulator model

   Averaged switching converter models

   Output filter model

Summary of small-signal models of switching converters

Linear model of the voltage regulator including external perturbances

   Output impedance and stability

State-space representation of switching converters

   State-space averaging

Switching converter transfer functions

   Source-to-state transfer functions

Input EMI filters

   Stability considerations

Problems

ANALOG CONTROL OF SWITCHING CONVERTERS

Introduction

Review of negative feedback using classical-control techniques

   Closed-loop gain

   Stability analysis

   Relative stability

Linear model of the closed-loop switching converter

   Feedback network

   Error amplifier compensation networks

   PI compensation network

   PID compensation network

   Proportional control

Feedback compensation in a buck converter with output capacitor ESR

Feedback compensation in a buck converter with no output capacitor ESR

Complete state feedback

   Design of a control system with complete state feedback

   Pole selection

   Feedback gains

Problems

DISCRETE-TIME MODELING OF SWITCHING CONVERTERS

Introduction

Continuous-time systems

Direct discrete model

Linear direct discrete model

Continuous-time averaged state-space model

Averaged discrete-time model of the switching converter

Problems

DIGITAL CONTROL OF SWITCHING CONVERTERS

Introduction

Proportional controller

Digital redesign of a PID controller

Design of a discrete control system with complete state feedback

   Pole selection

   Feedback gains

   Voltage mode control

   Current mode control

Problems

INTERLEAVED CONVERTERS

Introduction

Interleaved buck converter

   State-space averaged model

Interleaved boost converter

   State-space averaged model

Interleaved converter operation based on current-mode

   Ripple calculations

   Number of converters

Power factor correction

Problems

SWITCHED CAPACITOR CONVERTERS

Introduction

Unidirectional power flow SCC

   Basic step-up converter

   Basic step-down converter

   Basic inverting converter

Alternative switched capacitor converter topologies

   Step-down converter

   Step-up converter

   n-stage step-down SCC

   n-stage step-up SCC

Bi-directional power flow SCC

   Step-up step-down converter

   Luo converter

Resonant converters

   Zero-current switching

Losses on switched-capacitor power converters

Problems

SIMULATION OF SWITCHING CONVERTERS

Introduction

SPICE circuit representation

   PSPICE simulations using CIR

   PSPICE simulations using schematics entry

   Small-signal analysis of switching converters

   Creating capture symbols for PSPICE simulation

   Solving convergence problems

Switching converter simulation using Matlab

   Working with transfer functions

   Working with matrices

Switching converter simulation using Simulink

   Transfer function example using Simulink

   State-space example using Simulink

Problems

APPLICATIONS OF SWITCHING CONVERTERS

Power factor correction

   Introduction

   Review of basic concepts

   Principle of power factor correction

   Self-power factor correction properties of switching converters

      Buck converter

      Boost converter

      Buck-boost converter

      Flyback converter

   Control techniques for power factor correctors

      Peak current mode control (PCM)

      Average current mode control

      Hysteresis control

      Borderline or boundary control

      Discontinuous current PWM control

   Power factor correction circuits

Low noise DC-DC converters

   Introduction

Techniques to reduce EMI

   Capacitive coupling

   Inductive coupling

   Input filtering

   Output Filtering

   Slew rate limiting

Switching converters for solar cells

   Introduction

   Solar cell model

   Maximum-power point tracking

   Switching converters for solar cells

Switching converters for fuel cells

Switching converters for LED drivers

   Buck-based LED drivers

   Boost-based LED drivers

   Cûk-based LED drivers

   SEPIC-based LED drivers

   LED drivers for AC input

SWITCHING CONVERTER DESIGN CASE STUDIES

Introduction

Voltage-mode discontinuous-conduction-mode buck converter design

   Controller design

   Small-signal model

   Design of the compensation network and error amplifier

   The closed-loop buck converter

   Simulation results

   Experimental results

Digital control of a voltage-mode synchronous buck converter

   Circuit parameters

   Closed-loop pole selection

   Discrete-time model

   Feedback gains

   Control strategy

   Analog model for PSpice simulations

   Simulation results

   Sensitivity of the closed-loop poles due to load variations

   Experimental results

Digital control of a current-mode synchronous buck converter

   Continuous-time state model

   Obtaining the discrete-time model

   Current-mode instability

   Extended-state model for a tracking regulator

   Feedback gains

   Control strategy

   Simulation results

   Sensitivity of the closed-loop poles due to load variations

   Experimental results

   DSP program

UC-based fly back design

   Design specifications

   Discontinuous conduction mode

   Preliminary calculations

   Open loop simulations

   Current loop

   Voltage loop

   Small signal model

   Frequency compensation

   EMI filter design

   Printed circuit board design

   Experimental results

TopSwitch-based flyback design

   Design specifications

   Preliminary calculations

   Experimental results

   TinySwitch-based flyback design 
  
   Experimental results

Switching audio amplifier 
  
   Case study

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

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Author(s)

Biography

Simon S. Ang is with the Electrical Engineering Department at the University of Arkansas.

Alejandro R. Oliva is with the Department of Engineering at the Universidad Nacional del Sur, Argentina.

Support Material

Ancillaries