Power System SCADA and Smart Grids: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Power System SCADA and Smart Grids

1st Edition

By Mini S. Thomas, John Douglas McDonald

CRC Press

335 pages | 19 Color Illus. | 127 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2015-04-13
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Description

Power System SCADA and Smart Grids brings together in one concise volume the fundamentals and possible application functions of power system supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA). The text begins by providing an overview of SCADA systems, evolution, and use in power systems and the data acquisition process. It then describes the components of SCADA systems, from the legacy remote terminal units (RTUs) to the latest intelligent electronic devices (IEDs), data concentrators, and master stations, as well as:

  • Examines the building and practical implementation of different SCADA systems
  • Offers a comprehensive discussion of the data communication, protocols, and media usage
  • Covers substation automation (SA), which forms the basis for transmission, distribution, and customer automation
  • Addresses distribution automation and distribution management systems (DA/DMS) and energy management systems (EMS) for transmission control centers
  • Discusses smart distribution, smart transmission, and smart grid solutions such as smart homes with home energy management systems (HEMs), plugged hybrid electric vehicles, and more

Power System SCADA and Smart Grids is designed to assist electrical engineering students, researchers, and practitioners alike in acquiring a solid understanding of SCADA systems and application functions in generation, transmission, and distribution systems, which are evolving day by day, to help them adapt to new challenges effortlessly. The book reveals the inner secrets of SCADA systems, unveils the potential of the smart grid, and inspires more minds to get involved in the development process.

Reviews

"… a must-have text on this subject. It provides not only students, but those who deal with SCADA, insight into the various technologies and systems that exist along with their differences—both strengths and weaknesses. … a very thoughtful resource on such an important, and rapidly changing, topic. This book also provides the next generation of power engineers with a ready reference to understand where we have been and where we can go in the not-too-distant future."

—David W. Roop, from IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, January/February 2016

"As a power system operator having nearly four decades of experience and as an end user of the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems, I have always found the available literature on SCADA as limited and in the form of documents by vendors or in the form of research papers. This book is a first of its kind in the sense that it is ‘vendor neutral’ and very lucidly brings out various fundamental concepts related to SCADA. The book provides an excellent reference material both for beginners and practicing professionals. I would strongly recommend the book to all power system engineers as an essential reference material. … It provides an understanding of the historical and legacy systems as well as an insight into the new technologies. Automation is the key to the future, and the book appropriately delves into this aspect."

—Sushil Kumar Soonee, Power System Operation Corporation, New Delhi, India

"The authors cover all of the building blocks and detailed functionality of electric power SCADA systems, including a good deal of legacy hardware and older techniques. This is important because most large existing systems contain a mix of new and old equipment, with the latter being very poorly documented and therefore hard for newcomers in the field to understand. I would recommend this book to college students/new graduates as well as professionals coming from other industries who want to understand how electric power SCADA got to where it is, why it is evolving into new technologies, and what types of real-world challenges they will be encountering."

—Michael Thesing, Patterson & Dewar Engineers, Inc., Norcross, Georgia, USA

"Each topic, like ‘SCADA system’ and ‘remote terminal unit’ (RTU), has been introduced with a simple block diagram showing the various components followed by description of each component thereof. This approach will immensely help the student to learn the topic easily and systematically. Photographs of actual (commercially available) products like RTUs and relay intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) make the book very useful to students who are about to enter the engineering profession and to practicing engineers. … Advanced topics like ‘alarm suppression techniques’ and ‘intelligent electronic devices’ have been dealt with thoroughly. A laboratory implementation of SCADA, named ‘SCADA lab’, will be very useful as a learning model to students and as a research model to researchers. A full chapter on ‘SCADA communications’ does justice to this topic. The following topics are very well addressed in the book: small, medium, and large master stations; software modules of master stations; and human-machine interface (HMI) hardware components and software functionalities. … Issues like ‘open’ and ‘proprietary’ systems and ‘message security’ enhance the value of this book. ‘Case studies in SCADA systems’ give an insight into the practical SCADA systems. The concepts of ‘single master - single RTU’, ‘single master - multiple RTU’, and ‘multiple master - multiple RTU’ have been explained with simple block schematics. … The authors have a long experience of teaching the subject and working in the area, and … the book has been written well. … In my view, there was a long-felt need for a book of this type. The book does full justice to the subject of SCADA."

—HK Verma, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India

"The book is well written and well organized with good details to describe the basic concepts and key features of SCADA systems, including the overall system architecture, key components, functionalities, and the applications, as well as the adjacent sub-systems, such as the communication systems and the filed electronic devices. A few practical application example cases are also included in the book, which will be very useful references for the readers."

—Jiyuan Fan, Southern States LLC, Hampton, Georgia, USA

"This book provides the fundamentals of SCADA for power system applications. It explains why SCADA systems were developed and how they evolved into the systems in use today, and describes new technologies, e.g., phasor measurement units (PMUs), and their applications. There is also a concise overview of various "smart grid" technologies covering microgrids (AC and DC), PMUs, and DC power systems.

Using this book, students, academics, and working power system engineers will quickly learn how the SCADA system works in substations, transmission, and distribution power systems, and be conversant with the new types of systems used in "smart" grids."

John Shea, IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, January/February 2018

Table of Contents

Preface

The Authors

Power System Automation

Introduction

Evolution of Automation Systems

History of Automation Systems

Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Systems

Components of SCADA Systems

SCADA Applications

SCADA in Power Systems

SCADA Basic Functions

SCADA Application Functions

Advantages of SCADA in Power Systems

Deferred Capital Expenditure

Optimized Operation and Maintenance Costs

Equipment Condition Monitoring (ECM)

Sequence of Events (SOE) Recording

Power Quality Improvement

Data Warehousing for Power Utilities

Power System Field

Transmission and Distribution Systems

Customer Premises

Types of Data and Signals in Power Systems

Flow of Data from the Field to the SCADA Control Center

Organization of the Book

Summary

Bibliography

SCADA Fundamentals

Introduction

Open System: Need and Advantages

Building Blocks of SCADA Systems

Remote Terminal Unit (RTU)

Evolution of RTUs

Components of RTU

Communication Subsystem

Logic Subsystem

Termination Subsystem

Testing and Human-Machine Interface (HMI) Subsystem

Power Supplies

Advanced RTU Functionalities

Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs)

Evolution of IEDs

IED Functional Block Diagram

Hardware and Software Architecture of the IED

IED Communication Subsystem

IED Advanced Functionalities

Tools for Settings, Commissioning, and Testing

Programmable LCD Display

Typical IEDs

Data Concentrators and Merging Units

RTUs, IEDs, and Data Concentrator

Merging Units and IEDs

SCADA Communication Systems

Master Station

Master Station Software Components

Master Station Hardware Components

Server Systems in the Master Station

Small, Medium, and Large Master Stations

Global Positioning Systems (GPS)

Master Station Performance

Human-Machine Interface (HMI)

HMI Components

HMI Software Functionalities

Situational Awareness

Intelligent Alarm Filtering: Need and Technique

Alarm Suppression Techniques

Operator Needs and Requirements

Building the SCADA Systems, Legacy, Hybrid, and New Systems

Classification of SCADA Systems

Single Master–Single Remote

Single Master–Multiple RTU

Multiple Master–Multiple RTUs

Single Master, Multiple Submaster, Multiple Remote

SCADA Implementation: A Laboratory Model

The SCADA Laboratory

System Hardware

System Software

SCADA Lab Field Design

Case Studies in SCADA

"Kentucky Utility Fires Up Its First SCADA System"

"Ketchikan Public Utilities Finds Solutions to Outdated, Proprietary RTUs"

"Overwhelmed by Alarms: The Blackout Puts Filtering and Suppression Technologies in the Spotlight"

"North Carolina Municipal Power Agency Boosts Revenue by Replacing SCADA"

Summary

Bibliography

SCADA Communication

Introduction

SCADA Communication Requirements

Smart Grid Communication Infrastructure

Quality of Services (QoS)

Interoperability

Scalability

Security

Standardization

SCADA Communication Topologies

Point to Point and Multi-Drop

Bus Topology

Ring Topology

Star Topology

Mesh Topology

Data Flow: Simplex and Duplex

SCADA Data Communication Techniques

Master-Slave

Peer-to-Peer

Multi-Peer (Broadcast and Multicast)

Data Communication

Components of a Data Communication System

Transmission of Digital Signals

Modes of Digital Data Communication

Error Detection Techniques

Media Access Control (MAC) Techniques

SCADA Communication Protocol Architecture

OSI Seven-Layer Model

Enhanced Performance Architecture (EPA) Model

TCP/IP Model

Evolution of SCADA Communication Protocols

SCADA and Smart Grid Protocols

Modbus

IEC 60870-5-101/103/104

Distributed Network Protocol 3 (DNP3)

Inter-Control Center Protocol (ICCP)

Ethernet

IEC 61850

IEEE C37.118: Synchrophasor Standard

Wireless Technologies for Home Automation

Protocols in the Power System: Deployed and Evolving

Media for SCADA and Smart Grid Communication

Guided Media

Twisted Pair

Coaxial (Coax) Metallic Cable

Optical Fiber

Power Line Carrier Communication (PLCC)

Telephone-Based Systems

Unguided (Wireless) Media

Satellite Communication

Radio (VHF, UHF, Spread Spectrum)

Microwaves

Cell Phone

Paging

Communication Media: Utility Owned versus Leased

Security for SCADA and Smart Grid Communication

Challenges for SCADA and Smart Grid Communication

Summary

Bibliography

Substation Automation (SA)

Substation Automation: Why? Why Now?

Deregulation and Competition

Development of Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs)

Enterprise-Wide Interest in Information from IEDs

Implementation and Acceptance of Standards

Construction Cost Savings and Reduction in Physical Complexity

Conventional Substations: Islands of Automation

New Smart Devices for Substation Automation

IEDs

New Instrument Transformers with Digital Interface

Intelligent Breaker

Merging Units (MUs)

The New Integrated Digital Substation

Levels of Automation in a Substation

Architecture Functional Data Paths

Data Warehouse

Substation Automation: Technical Issues

System Responsibilities

System Architecture

Substation Host Processor

Substation LAN

User Interface

Communications Interfaces

Protocol Considerations

The New Digital Substation

Process Level

Protection and Control Level

Station Bus and Station Level

Substation Automation Architectures

Legacy Substation Automation System

Digital Substation Automation Design

New versus Existing Substations

Drivers of Transition

Migration Paths and the Steps Involved

Value of Standards in Substation Automation

Substation Automation (SA) Application Functions

Integrated Protection Functions: Traditional Approach and IED-Based Approach

Automation Functions

Enterprise-Level Application Functions

Data Analysis: Benefits of Data Warehousing

Benefits of Data Analysis to Utilities

Problems in Data Analysis

Ways to Handle Data

Knowledge Extraction Techniques

SA Practical Implementation: Substation Automation Laboratory

Hardware Design of the SA Laboratory

Software Components of the SA Laboratory

Mitigation from Old Technology to the New Technology

Case Studies in Substation Automation

Summary

Bibliography

Energy Management Systems (EMS) for Control Centers

Introduction

Operating States of the Power System and Sources of Grid Vulnerability

Energy Control Centers

Energy Management Systems (EMS): Why and What and Challenges

Energy Management Systems Evolution

EMS Framework

EMS Time Frames

EMS Software Applications and Data Flow

Data Acquisition and Communication (SCADA Systems)

Generation Operation and Management

Load Forecasting

Unit Commitment

Hydrothermal Coordination

Real-Time Economic Dispatch and Reserve Monitoring

Real-Time Automatic Generation Control

Transmission Operations and Management: Real Time

Network Configuration and Topology Processors

State Estimation

Contingency Analysis

Security Constrained Optimal Power Flow

Islanding of Power Systems

Study-Mode Simulations

Network Modeling

Power Flow Analysis

Short-Circuit Analysis

Post-Event Analysis and Energy Scheduling and Accounting

Energy Scheduling and Accounting

Event Analysis

Energy Service Providers

Dispatcher Training Simulator

Smart Transmission

Phasor Measurement Unit

Phasor Quantity and Time Synchronization

PMU-PDC System Architecture

Applications of PMU

WAMS (Wide-Area Monitoring System)

EMS with WAMS

Future Trends in EMS and DMS with WAMS

Case Studies in EMS and WAMS

Summary

Bibliography

Distribution Automation and Distribution Management (DA/DMS) Systems

Overview of Distribution Systems

Introduction to Distribution Automation

Customer Automation

Feeder Automation

Substation Automation

Subsystems in a Distribution Control Center

Distribution Management Systems (DMSs)

Outage Management Systems (OMS)

CIS (Customer Information System)

GIS (Geographical Information System)

AMS (Asset Management System)

AMI (Advanced Metering Infrastructure)

DMS Framework: Integration with Subsystems

Common Information Model (CIM)

DMS Application Functions

Advanced Real-Time DMS Applications

Topology Processing (TP)

Integrated Volt-Var Control (IVVC)

Fault Detection, Isolation, and Service Restoration (FDIR)

Distribution Load Flow

Distribution State Estimation (SE) and Load Estimation

Advanced Analytical DMS Applications

Optimal Feeder Reconfiguration

Optimal Capacitor Placement

Other Applications

DMS Coordination with Other Systems

Integration with Outage Management Systems (OMS)

Integration with AMI

Customer Automation Functions

Social Media Usage for Improved Reliability and Customer Satisfaction

Replacing Truck Rolls

Tying It All Together

Routing Signals

DMS in Outage Management

Future Trends in DA and DMS

Case Studies in DA and DMS

Summary

Bibliography

Smart Grid Concepts

Introduction

Smart Grid Definition and Development

Old Grid versus New Grid

Stakeholders in Smart Grid Development

Smart Grid Solutions

Asset Optimization

Demand Optimization

Distribution Optimization

Smart Meter and Communications

Transmission Optimization

Workforce and Engineering Optimization

Smart Grid Road Map

Smart Distribution

Demand-Side Management and Demand Response

Distributed Energy Resource and Energy Storage

Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI)

Smart Homes with Home Energy Management Systems (HEMs)

Plugged Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Microgrids

Smart Transmission

Lessons Learned in Deployment of Smart Grid Technologies

Lessons on Technology

Lessons on Implementation and Deployment

Lessons on Project Management: Building a Collaborative Management Team

Share Lessons Learned

The Lessons Continue

Case Studies in Smart Grid

PG&E Improves Information Visibility

Present and Future Integration of Diagnostic Equipment Monitoring

Accelerated Deployment of Smart Grid Technologies in India: Present Scenario, Challenges, and Way Forward

Summary

Bibliography

Glossary

Index

About the Authors

Mini S. Thomas is a professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering at Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India (JMI), with 29 years of teaching and research experience in the field of power systems. She was the head of the Department of Electrical Engineering and currently is the director of the Center for Innovation and Entrepreneurship. She graduated from the University of Kerala, India and obtained her M.Tech from the Indian Institute of Technology Madras, both with Gold Medals. She also holds a Ph.D from the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi. Dr. Thomas conceived, designed, and implemented the first-of-their-kind supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) and substation automation (SA) laboratories and has done extensive research work in SCADA systems, substation and distribution automation, and smart grids. She has published more than 100 research papers in international journals and conferences of repute, and is the coordinator of the special assistance program (SAP) on power system automation from the University Grants Commission, Government of India.

John D. McDonald, P.E., is director of Technical Strategy and Policy Development for GE Energy Management - Digital Energy, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, with 40 years of experience in the electric utility industry. He joined GE Energy’s Transmission and Distribution (now Digital Energy) business in 2008 as general manager of marketing, and accepted his current role in 2010. McDonald is a sought-after industry leader, technical expert, educator, and speaker. In his 28 years of working group and subcommittee leadership with the IEEE Power and Energy Society (PES) Substations Committee, he led seven working groups and task forces that published standards and tutorials in the areas of SCADA and master/remote terminal unit (RTU) and RTU/IED communications protocols. He is a fellow of IEEE and past president of the IEEE PES. He teaches smart grid courses for GE and the Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, USA, and substation automation, SCADA, and communications courses for various IEEE PES local chapters. He has published 80 papers and articles, co-authored four books, and holds a BSEE and MSEE from Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA, and an MBA from the University of California-Berkeley, USA. He received the 2009 Outstanding Electrical and Computer Engineer Award from Purdue University.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI024000
SCIENCE / Energy
TEC007000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electrical
TEC008000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / General
TEC031020
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Power Resources / Electrical
TEC064000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Sensors