Practical Guide to Rock Tunneling: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Practical Guide to Rock Tunneling

1st Edition

By Dean Brox

CRC Press

248 pages

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Hardback: 9781138629981
pub: 2017-04-25
eBook (VitalSource) : 9781315210117
pub: 2017-04-11
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This Practical Guide to Rock Tunneling fills an important void in the literature for a practical guide to the design and construction of tunnels in rock.

Practical Guide to Rock Tunneling takes the reader through all the critical steps of the design and construction for rock tunnels starting from geotechnical site investigations through to construction supervision. The guide provides suggestions and recommendations for practitioners on special topics of laboratory testing, durability of rock and acceptance for unlined water conveyance tunnels, overstressing or deep and long tunnels, risk-based evaluation of excavation methods, contract strategies, and post-construction inspections. Key considerations and lessons learned from selected case projects are presented based on the author’s extensive international experience of over 30 years and 1000 km of tunneling for civil, hydropower, and mining infrastructure, including some of the most recognized projects in the world to date.

Instead of revisiting all theory and concepts that can be found in other sources, this book contains the hard learned lessons from the author’s experience in the field of Rock Tunneling, gathered over 30 years of service.


"Practical Guide to Rock Tunneling is exactly that, a useful tool and guide for practitioners in the tunnel business. This book provides insight into nearly every subject and for all steps of a rock tunnel project from planning through construction and operations and inspection. This book is a valuable reference for owners/clients, as it includes discussion of subjects such as: project planning, costing, scheduling, and risk assessment, never covered in classic technical books. Excellent photographs and graphics are contained throughout the book, which clearly illustrate the author’s message from practical experience on the multitude of subjects.

This book provides guidance on the current up-to-date state-of-the-practice in rock tunneling discussing innovations of the last decade from televiewer logging of bore holes, LiDAR aerial surveys for geological fault mapping, proper photography of rock core, to the modern use of fiber reinforcement in pre-cast concrete segments. New technical evaluation and graphical methods are presented for overstressing and squeezing of deep tunnels as part of constructability assessments. A good discussion, illustrated with photographs, of the importance of rock durability is provided. The acceptability of unlined tunnels for water conveyance and criteria to consider are discussed.

This book is based on 30 years of practical experience of investigation, design, construction, and operation of rock tunnels coupled with a thorough review of the literature. “Practical Guide to Rock Tunneling” should be part of all tunnel practitioner’s libraries; this includes staff engineers, geologists, project managers, and owners."

Don W. Deere, P.E., Denver, Colorado.

"I enjoyed reading this new book by Dean if only because it reminded me of what l`d forgotten and what has changed in Rock Tunnelling! Dean has produced an engaging summary of the current practice of planning, design, management and construction in Rock Tunnelling and it is a good basis for BSc/MSc students and beginners learning the art of rock tunnelling. It is a well laid out book following a clear format with useful references and case studies—and some excellent pictures. Each of the 21 chapters are not too wordy and Dean gets to the point without unnecessary verbage […] Of particular note are the chapters on Rock Characterisation, Risk & Mitigation and Lessons Learned ( Chapters 5, 12 &19). The essential points for each of these areas of Rock Tunnelling are covered and well explained and uncomplicated. Chapter 15 on Contract Strategy and implementation, whilst not specifically unique to Rock Tunnelling, is nevertheless explained clearly without burdening the reader with too much detail; and for those just beginning a career in tunnelling the background is a welcome summary putting into context the commercial framework for procuring construction in Rock Tunnelling.

For those looking for more detail then the book does give useful references and for those looking for detail of Case Histories then the brief examples serve as a starting point for satisfying those who want to delve more into practical examples and to gather more lessons learned.

All in all l`d be delighted if l was just beginning a career in tunnelling to have the benefit of Dean`s helicopter view of an industry that he knows well and understands."

Martin Knights FREng, Former president of the International Tunnelling Association, and independent consulting engineer.

Table of Contents

1 Introduction

2 Functional uses of rock tunnels

2.1 General

2.2 Functional uses

3 Tunnel project execution

3.1 General

3.2 Project delivery method

3.3 Execution stages

3.4 Pre-planning by client

3.5 Project engineering by consultants

3.6 Engineering effort and deliverables during execution

3.7 Functional requirements for design build

3.8 Early contractor engagement and involvement

3.9 Constructability reviews

3.10 Independent TBM risk assessment

4 Site investigations

4.1 General

4.2 Potential consequences of limited site investigations

4.3 Review of existing information and previous experience

4.4 Planning and budgeting for site investigations

4.5 Compilation of relevant information and base map

4.6 Identification of key geological risks and possible concerns

4.7 Planning of phased investigations

4.8 Field mapping and ground proofing of inferred geological faults

4.9 Geophysical surveys

4.10 Borehole drilling

4.11 In situ testing

4.12 Selection and preparation of samples

4.13 Laboratory and quality assurance testing

4.14 Field instrumentation and monitoring before construction

4.15 Pilot or test excavation/gallery

4.16 Reporting

4.17 Drillcore photographs

4.18 Long term storage of drillcore

5 Rock characterization

5.1 Regional and site geology

5.2 Tunnel alignment geology

5.3 Faults and fracture zones

5.4 Rock mass fractures

5.5 Rock strength

5.6 Rock mineralogy

5.7 Rock alteration

5.8 Rock abrasivity

5.9 Rock durability and swelling potential

5.10 Groundwater conditions, predicted inflows, and quality

5.11 In situ stresses

5.12 Rock mass quality

5.13 Tunnel alignment and section characterization

6 Rock tunnel design

6.1 Design criteria and basis

6.2 Technical standards and codes of practice

6.3 Tunnel cross section and internal geometrical requirements

6.4 Tunnel size and shape

6.5 Portal locations and support design

6.6 Horizontal alignment and separation

6.7 Vertical alignment

6.8 Practical grade

6.9 Intermediate or temporary access requirements

6.10 Drainage requirements

6.11 Invert requirements

6.12 Operational design requirements

6.13 Access requirements

6.14 Design of hydraulic pressure tunnels

6.15 Seismic design considerations for rock tunnels

6.16 Constructability of design

7 Tunnel stability

7.1 General

7.2 Probable modes of instability

7.3 Stability analyses and selection of parameters

7.4 Empirical assessments of stability

7.5 Kinematic stability assessment

7.6 Rock mass stability assessment

7.7 Discrete element rock mass stability assessment

7.8 Evaluation of overstressing and characterization

7.9 Tunnel stability at fault zones

7.10 Squeezing conditions

7.11 Stability of aging hydropower tunnels

7.12 Review of stability of existing tunnels in similar geology

8 Tunnel excavation

8.1 Practical considerations

8.2 Minimum construction size

8.3 Overbreak considerations

8.4 Drill and blast excavation

8.5 Blasting design

8.6 Chemical rock breaking without vibrations

8.7 Scaling

8.8 High speed drill and blast excavation for long tunnels

8.9 Sequential Excavation Method (SEM) for weak rock

8.10 Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) excavation

8.11 Assessment of TBM applicability

8.12 The use of TBMs in squeezing ground conditions

8.13 The use of TBMs for mining projects

8.14 Minimum technical specifications for TBMs

8.15 Roadheader excavation

8.16 Methods for inclined excavation

8.17 Shaft excavation

8.18 Cavern excavation

8.19 New and developing technologies for excavation in rock

8.20 Construction methodology evaluation and risks

9 Tunnel support

9.1 General design principles

9.2 Initial rock support

9.3 Final rock support

9.4 Practical installation

9.5 Portal support

9.6 Support components and typical products

9.7 Tunnel support for severe overstressing and rockbursts

9.8 Tunnel support for squeezing conditions

9.9 Corrosion potential assessment

9.10 Pre-support requirements

9.11 Ground freezing

9.12 Tunnel stability and support design verification

10 Tunnel lining requirements

10.1 Purpose of tunnel linings in rock

10.2 Acceptability of unlined tunnels in rock

10.3 Shotcrete for final lining

10.4 Shotcrete for final lining of hydraulic tunnels

10.5 Cast-in-place concrete for final lining

10.6 One-pass concrete segmental lining with TBM excavation

10.7 Waterproofing requirements and applications

10.8 Fire protection requirements

11 Construction considerations

11.1 Site mobilization

11.2 Site preparation of camps, staging and laydown areas

11.3 Portal and shaft access

11.4 Ventilation

11.5 Construction water supply

11.6 Electrical supply

11.7 Construction pumps and sumps

11.8 Groundwater and construction water treatment

11.9 Environmental sampling and testing requirements

11.10 Spoil disposal

11.11 Tunnel support design implementation

11.12 Geological and geotechnical mapping requirements

11.13 Quality assurance inspections

11.14 Geotechnical instrumentation

12 Construction risks and mitigation measures

12.1 Portal hazards

12.2 Tunneling hazards

12.3 Stability influence between adjacent and existing tunnels

12.4 Groundwater control and management

12.5 Tunnel construction impacts and disturbances to the community

12.6 TBM entrapment and relief

12.7 TBM special problems and design features

12.8 Generation of fine materials during TBM excavation

12.9 Probe drilling

12.10 Pre-drainage

12.11 Pre-excavation grouting

12.12 Post-excavation grouting

12.13 Pilot tunnels

12.14 Investigative techniques during construction

12.15 Additional tunneling equipment and resources during construction

13 Construction cost estimation for rock tunnels

13.1 General

13.2 Costing standards and recommended procedures

13.3 Key assumptions for construction cost estimates

13.4 Direct construction costs

13.5 Indirect construction costs

13.6 Construction cost contingencies and profits

13.7 Client's costs

13.8 Total anticipated tunnel project cost

13.9 Probabilistic analysis of construction costs and geological uncertainty

13.10 Integrated cost and schedule risk analysis

13.11 Benchmark comparisons to similar projects 176

14 Construction scheduling for rock tunnels

14.1 Identification of key construction activities and graphic presentation

14.2 Procurement lead time for key equipment

14.3 Evaluation of realistic rates of productivity and working hours

14.4 Schedule contingencies for risk events

14.5 Critical path activities

15 Tunnel contract strategy and implementation

15.1 General

15.2 Contract documentation and types of contracts

15.3 Pre-qualification

15.4 Form of payment

15.5 Risk sharing and compensation for differing site conditions

15.6 Geotechnical baseline reports and implementation

15.7 Construction contract and scheduling management

15.8 Partnering

15.9 Dispute resolution

15.10 Claims management

16 Risk management

16.1 Risk management and practice

16.2 Qualitative risk assessments and risk registers

16.3 Risk allocation

16.4 Quantitative risk assessments

17 Inspection of rock tunnels

17.1 General

17.2 Manual inspections, data documentation, and safety practices

17.3 Unwatered inspections of hydraulic tunnels using ROVs

18 Renovation, repairs, and decommissioning

18.1 Renovation of rock tunnels

18.2 Repair of rock tunnels

18.3 Decommissioning of rock tunnels

19 Case histories and lessons learned

19.1 General

19.2 Lesotho Highlands Water Project Phase 1, Lesotho

19.3 Pacific Place Pedestrian Tunnel, Hong Kong

19.4 Taipei Ring Road Tunnels, Taiwan

19.5 Bolu Mountain Road Tunnel, Turkey

19.6 Gotthard Base Rail Tunnel. Switzerland

19.7 Seymour Capilano Twin Drinking Water Tunnels, Canada

19.8 Niagara Hydropower Tunnel, Canada

19.9 Arrowhead Inland Feeder Water Transfer Tunnels, USA

19.10 Canada Line Transit Tunnels, Canada

19.11 Ashlu Hydropower Tunnel, Canada

19.12 Forrest Kerr Hydropower Project, Canada

19.13 Rio Esti Hydropower Tunnel, Panama

19.14 Chacayes Hydropower Tunnel, Chile

19.15 Los Arandanos Hydropower Tunnels, Chile

19.16 Red Lake Gold Mine High Speed Tram Tunnel, Canada

19.17 Pascua Lama Mine Conveyor Tunnel, Chile

19.18 Los Condores Hydropower Tunnel, Chile 229

20 Engagement and roles and responsibilities of professionals

20.1 Engagement of professionals

20.2 Roles of professionals

20.3 Responsibilities and liability of professionals

21 Health and safety

About the Author

Dean Brox has over 30 years of experience as a tunneling practitioner with more than 1200 km of major tunneling and infrastructure projects around the world. Dean graduated in 1985 from the Geological Engineering Program of the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada, in 1985 and obtained his Master in Science in Engineering Rock Mechanics with Distinction from Imperial College, London, in 1990. Dean started his career in underground mining rock mechanics in South Africa before moving into tunneling for civil engineering infrastructure projects around the

world including the Lesotho Highlands Water Project, the Hong Kong Airport Core Projects, and the Gotthard Base Rail Tunnel in Switzerland. Dean has extensive experience with tunnels for hydropower projects and his areas of particular interest include high speed drill and blast excavation of long tunnels, long and deep TBM excavated tunnels, overstressing of deep or weak rock tunnels, asset performance of hydropower tunnels and TBM applicability assessments for mining projects. Dean practices as an independent consulting engineer and lives in Vancouver, Canada.

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