Precision Crystallization: Theory and Practice of Controlling Crystal Size, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Precision Crystallization

Theory and Practice of Controlling Crystal Size, 1st Edition

By Ingo Leubner

CRC Press

216 pages | 86 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2009-09-28
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Despite the fact that crystals make up an estimated 80% of chemical and pharmaceutical products, few resources exist that provide practical guidance on achieving precision control of their size and size distribution. Based on a model developed by the author and his colleagues, Precision Crystallization: Theory and Practice of Controlling Crystal Size presents scientists and product engineers with the tools to control crystal nucleation, enabling them to ultimately control crystal size and size distribution for batch and continuous crystallizations.

At the cutting edge of crystallization science and technology, this volume presents information never before available. Introducing the Balanced Nucleation and Growth (BNG) model, the book demonstrates how the results of the nucleation process are quantitatively related to practical experimental control values such as:

  • reaction addition rate
  • crystal solubility
  • temperature
  • residence time (continuous crystallizations)
  • the effect of ripening agents (crystal supersizing) during nucleation
  • the effect of crystal growth restrainers (crystal nanosizing) during nucleation
  • control of renucleation

The author shows how the BNG theory predicts previously unknown phenomena and also how it corrects erroneous perceptions of the importance of reaction volume on the outcome of crystal nucleation. Going above and beyond classical nucleation theories which rely to a large extent on guesswork, the BNG model gives precise guidance to scientists working in a range of critical areas, leading to promising implications for research, quality control, product development, production processes, pilot plant operations, and manufacturing.

Table of Contents

Prior Models for Nucleation and Growth

The Primitive Model

The Total Crystal Number

The Classical Nucleation Model (Becker-Doering)

Derivation of the Classical Nucleation Model

The Klein-Moisar Model

Kharitanova Derivation

Growth Rate and Maximum Growth Rate

The Balanced Nucleation and Growth Model

The BNG Model and the Nucleation Phase

Assumptions for Modeling

Assumptions for Calculations

Preliminary Considerations: Nucleation Rate

The Balanced Nucleation and Growth Model

BNG Modeling of the Nucleation Phase and Size Distribution

Reaction Parameters for the Calculations

Results and Discussion

The Analytical BNG Model

Crystal Formation (Nucleation) under Kinetically and Diffusion-Controlled Growth Conditions

Kinetically Controlled Nucleation

Experiment: Kinetically Controlled Crystal Nucleation Theory

Diffusion-Controlled Nucleation

Reaction Variables, Constants, Predictions

Modeling: Separation of Variables R, Cs, and T

Addition Rate


Temperature, T

Supersizing with Ripeners

Crystal Formation (Nucleation) in the Presence of Ostwald Ripening Agents: Theory

Crystal Formation (Nucleation) of Silver Bromide in the Presence of a Di-Thia Crown Ether as an Ostwald Ripening Agent

Crystal Formation (Nucleation) of AgClBr (15:85) in the Presence of Ammonia as an Ostwald Ripening Agent

Crystal Formation (Nucleation) of AgBrI (97.4:2.6) in the Presence of 1,8-dihydroxy-3,6-dithiaoctane as an Ostwald Ripening Agent

Nanosizing with Restrainers

Crystal Formation (Nucleation) in the Presence of Growth


Crystal Growth and Renucleation

Crystal Growth, Renucleation, and Maximum Growth Rate:

Theory and Experiments

Continuous Crystallization

Continuous Crystallization in the Mixed-Suspension, Mixed-Product-Removal (MSMPR), or Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) Crystallizer

Transient Behavior of Silver Bromide Precipitation in a

Continuous Suspension Crystallizer

A New Crystal Nucleation Theory for Size Control in

Continuous Precipitations

Crystal Growth in the Continuous Crystallizer

Seeded Precipitations in the Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor Crystallizer


Glossary of Terms




About the Author

Ingo H. Leubner received a PhD in physical chemistry from the Technical University in Munich, Germany, where he continued his studies with a postdoctoral fellowship. At Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, he held the postdoctoral position of R. Welch Fellow, studying and teaching photochemistry. From there, he accepted the position of senior research scientist at Eastman Kodak Company. His position required working in photographic and precipitation science and product development. His work on the use of silver halides for the development of photographic films and papers led to new insights, contributions to photographic science, and models for the control of crystal nucleation. For his published work he received the Fellowship and Service Awards, and the Lieven-Gevaert medal, the highest award in photographic science, from the Society for Imaging Science and Technology. As a team leader he guided the development of commercially successful products. As a result of his research, he became an experienced author, lecturer, scientist, and technical project manager. After separation from Eastman Kodak Company, he became founder and senior scientist for Crystallization Consulting, a company specializing in consulting, modeling, and teaching of advanced models for high-precision precipitations. His name is listed in American Men and Women in Science and in Who’s Who in Science and Engineering. He is a fellow of Sigma Xi, a member of the American Chemical Society, the Society for Imaging Science and Technology, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Geographical Union, the Rochester Academy of Science, and the Rochester Professional Consultants Network.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Chemistry / General
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Physical & Theoretical
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Industrial & Technical
SCIENCE / Physics