Genocide has been called 'a problem from hell' and despite vehement declarations of 'never again' it's a problem that continues to plague the world. From the beginning of history to the most recent massacres in Bosnia, Rwanda, and Darfur, genocide defies resolution. And given today's worldwide access to highly lethal weapons and advanced communications technology facilitating incitement to hate, we can expect to see this problem grow. It is often claimed that genocide occurs without warning, taking both local and global communities by surprise. Yet, as David Hamburg convincingly shows, we have had long-term advance knowledge of most modern genocides dating back to the early 20th century Armenian tragedy in Turkey and before. In this book, Dr. Hamburg applies a groundbreaking new perspective-the medical model of prevention-to the scourge of genocide in the world. Preventing genocide is not only possible, Dr Hamburg contends, but essential given its high cost in lives, human rights, and international security. Here he maps out numerous practical steps to recognise genocidal conflicts early and stem their tides of violence before they become acute. He also outlines several institutions in place and programs underway at the UN, EU, and NATO devoted to preventing future genocides before they erupt. He draws lessons both from missed opportunities and successful experiences and makes many constructive suggestions about strengthening international institutions, governments, and NGOs for this purpose.
Foreword by Elie Weisel Acknowledgments About the Author PART I: Nature and Severity of the Problem Chapter 1: Prevention of Genocide: Introduction and Overview Chapter 2: Paths to Genocide: Predisposing and Precipitating Factors and Their Relevance for Prevention Chapter 3: An Illustrative Genocide: The Armenians Chapter 4: An Illustrative Supergenocide: The Holocaust Chapter 5: An Illustrative Genocide: Burundi-Rwanda Chapter 6: Preventing Genocide: Leadership, Negotiation, Democracy, and International Help in the Vivid Example of South Africa PART II: Pillars of Prevention: Strateies, Tools, and Practices Chapter 7: Proactive Help in Preventing Mass Violence: Preventive Diplomacy and Beyond Chapter 8: Democracy and Prevention of Mass Violence Chapter 9: Fostering Equitable Socioeconomic Development Chapter 10: Education for Human Survival Chapter 11: Preventing Human Rights Abuses Through International Justice Chapter 12: Restraints on Weaponry PART III: Institutions and Organizations: Who Can Do What? Chapter 13: Potential of the United Nations for Preventing Mass Violence Chapter 14: The Promise of the European Union for Prevention of Genocide Chapter 15: Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe: Its Potential for Preventing Genocide Chapter 16: The North Atlantic Treaty Organization: An Instrument to Help in Preventing Genocide PART IV: Conclusion Chapter 17: Summing Up: Essential Points for Preventing Genocide Chapter 18: International Centers for the Prevention of Genocide: Unprecedented Historic Opportunities Notes Bibliography Index Credits