Primary liver cancer is one of the most prevalent human tumors worldwide. It recognizes a number of etiological factors and is one of the few human tumors to show a highly significant association to chronic viral infections. Chronic infections by hepatitis B and C viruses are major risk factors for subsequent development of primary liver cancer. A number of studies, however, have indicated that several other factors are important in cooperation with or independent from hepatitis viruses for liver cancer development. Significant progress has been made toward understanding both the epidemiology and the molecular basis of liver carcinogenesis. This book presents a comprehensive report on this progress, covering both viral and nonviral factors. In addition, it provides an important update on the role of different growth factors, oncogenes, or anti-oncogenes in the progression of the tumors. New areas, such as the implication of cell cycle regulator elements in liver carcinogenesis, are explored as well. The concept of cell lineage is introduced, and new strategies for appraising cell lineage in liver carcinogenesis are examined.
Morphology: Morphogenesis and Early Stages of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (W.F. Grigioni, P. Baccarini, E. Berti, and M. Panarelli). Oval Cell Lineage in Chemical Hepatocarcinogenesis (N. Ferry and M.-P. Bralet). Epidemiology: Hepatitis B Virus and Primary Liver Cancer (P.J. Johnson). Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Hepatocellular Carcinoma (K. Nishioka). Human Primary Liver Cancer and Hepatitis C Virus in Western Countries and Africa (M. Colombo and R. Romeo). Chemical Carcinogens in Primary Liver Cancer (R. Montesano and G.M. Kirby). Metabolic Liver Diseases and Liver Carcinoma (M. Hadchouel). Hepatitis B and C Viral Infections: Molecular Biology of Hepatitis B Virus (G. Fourel and P. Tiollais). Analysis of Hepatitis C Virus Genome and Hepatocellular Carcinoma (T. Miyamura). Immunopathogenetic Aspects of Hepatitis B Virus Infection (C. Ferrari, A. Penna, A. Bertoletti, A. Valli, and F. Fiaccadori). Genetic Variability of Hepatitis B Virus: Potential Clinical Implications (D. Kremsdorf and C. Bréchot). Hepatitis B Virus and Primary Liver Cancer in Hepatitis B Surface Antigen-Positive and -Negative Patients (P. Paterlini and C. Bréchot). Hepatitis B Virus Transactivator Proteins: The "Trans" Hypothesis of Liver Carcinogenesis (A.S. Kekulé). Animal Models for Hepatitis B Virus and Liver Cancer (M.A. Buendia). Mutant Hepadnaviruses and Hepatocellular Carcinoma (M.C. Kew). Alcohol and Hepatocellular Carcinoma (B. Nalpas). Progression Factors: The Biology of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma (B.I. Carr and G.K. Michaelopoulos). Chromosomal Rearrangements and Tumor Suppressor Genes in Primary Liver Cancer (M. Ozturk). Insulin-like Growth Factor II and Human Primary Liver Cancer (C. Lasserre, E. Cariani, F. Zindy, E. Lamas, and C. Bréchot). Index.