Principles of Chemical Engineering Processes : Material and Energy Balances, Second Edition book cover
2nd Edition

Principles of Chemical Engineering Processes
Material and Energy Balances, Second Edition

ISBN 9781482222289
Published November 10, 2014 by CRC Press
468 Pages 187 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Principles of Chemical Engineering Processes: Material and Energy Balances introduces the basic principles and calculation techniques used in the field of chemical engineering, providing a solid understanding of the fundamentals of the application of material and energy balances. Packed with illustrative examples and case studies, this book:

  • Discusses problems in material and energy balances related to chemical reactors
  • Explains the concepts of dimensions, units, psychrometry, steam properties, and conservation of mass and energy
  • Demonstrates how MATLAB® and Simulink® can be used to solve complicated problems of material and energy balances
  • Shows how to solve steady-state and transient mass and energy balance problems involving multiple-unit processes and recycle, bypass, and purge streams
  • Develops quantitative problem-solving skills, specifically the ability to think quantitatively (including numbers and units), the ability to translate words into diagrams and mathematical expressions, the ability to use common sense to interpret vague and ambiguous language in problem statements, and the ability to make judicious use of approximations and reasonable assumptions to simplify problems

This Second Edition has been updated based upon feedback from professors and students. It features a new chapter related to single- and multiphase systems and contains additional solved examples and homework problems. Educational software, downloadable exercises, and a solutions manual are available with qualifying course adoption.

Table of Contents




Systems of Units

Conversion factors


Definitions of Chemical Engineering

Sets of Units and Unit Conversion

Conversion of Units

Temperature Measurement

Temperature Conversion

Significant Figures

Multiplication, Division, Addition, and Subtraction of Significant Numbers

Dimensional Homogeneity

Dimensionless Quantities

Process and Process Variables

Process Flow Sheet

Process Unit

Process Streams

Density, Mass, and Volume

Mass and Volumetric Flow Rates

Moles and Molecular Weight

Compositions of Streams

Mass Fraction and Mole Fraction


Pressure Measurement

Types of Pressures

Standard Temperature and Pressure

Pressure-Sensing Devices

Process Classification and Material Balance

Material and Energy Balances

Process Units and Degree of Freedom Analysis

Process Units: Basic Functions

Divider (Splitter)

Mixer (Blender)

Dryer (Direct Heating)


Distillation Column

Multieffect Evaporator



Leaching and Extraction

Absorber (Stripper)

Partial Condenser and Flash Separator

Flash Separator



Batch Reactor

PFRs and PBRs

CSTR and Fluidized Bed Reactor

Process Flow Diagram

Labeling a PFD

Degree of Freedom Analysis

Possible Outcomes of DFA

Independent Equations

Multiple-Unit PFD

DFA, Multiunit Process

Material Balance on Single-Unit Process

Introduction to Material Balance

Material Balance Fundamentals

Mass Balance on Steady-State Processes

Stream Specification

Basis for Calculation

Procedure for Solving Material Balance Problems

Multiple-Unit Process Calculations

Multiple-Unit Process

Degree of Freedom Analysis

Recycle, Bypass, Purge, and Makeup





Material Balances on Reactive Systems

Stoichiometry Basics

Stoichiometric Equation

Stoichiometric Coefficients

Stoichiometric Ratio

Limiting Reactant

Excess Reactants

Fractional Conversion

General Material Balance

Differential Balance

Integral Balance

Formulation Approaches of Mass Balance

Extent of Reaction Method for a Single Reaction

Element or Atomic Balance Method

Molecular or Component Balance Approach

Extent of Reaction and Multiple Reactions

Molecular Species Approach for Multiple Reactions

Degree of Freedom Analysis for Reactive Processes

Chemical Equilibrium

Combustion Reactions

Theoretical and Excess Air

Multiple-Unit Systems Involving Reaction, Recycle, and Purge

Multiple-Unit Process Flowcharts

Flow Sheet for Reaction with Recycle

Reaction with Product Splitter and Recycle

Reaction with Recycle and Purge

Degree of Freedom Analysis for Reactive Multiple-Unit Processes

Reaction and Multiple-Unit Steady-State Processes

Single- and Multiphase Systems

Single-Phase Systems

Liquid and Solid Densities

Ideal Gas Equation of State

Gas Density

Real Gas Relationships

Compressibility Factor (z)

Virial Equation of State

Van der Waals Equation of State

Soave–Redlich–Kwong Equation of State

Kay’s Mixing Rules

Multiphase Systems

Phase Diagram

Vapor–Liquid Equilibrium Curve

Vapor Pressure Estimation

Clapeyron Equation

Clausius–Clapeyron Equation

Cox Chart

Antoine Equation

Partial Pressure

Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures

Raoult’s Law for a Single Condensable Species

Gibbs’ Phase Rule

Bubble Point, Dew Point, and Critical Point

Energy and Energy Balances

Energy Balance for Closed and Open Systems

Forms of Energy: The First Law of Thermodynamics

Energy Balance for a Closed System

Energy Balance for an Open System

Steam Turbine

Heaters and Coolers


Mechanical Energy Balance

Bernoulli’s Equation

Enthalpy Calculations

Enthalpy Change as a Result of Temperature

Constant Heat Capacity

Enthalpy Calculations with Phase Changes

Energy Balance for Open Systems with Multiple Inputs and Multiple Outputs

Enthalpy Change because of Mixing

Energy Balance for Bioprocesses

Psychrometric Chart


Energy Balance with Reaction

Heat of Reaction

Heats of Formation and Heat of Combustion

Extent of Reaction

Reactions in Closed Processes

Energy Balance for Reactive Processes

Heat of Reaction Method

Heat of Formation or Element Balance Method

Simultaneous Material and Energy Balances

Unknown Process Exit Temperature

Combustion Processes

Energy Balance in Bioprocesses

Energy Balance in Membrane Reactors


Simultaneous Material and Energy Balances

Material Balances




Extent of Reaction (ξ)

Energy Balances

Heat of Reaction Method

Heat of Formation Method

Concept of Atomic Balances

Mathematical Formulation of the Atomic Balance

Degree of Freedom Analysis for the Atomic Balance

Implementing Recycle on the Separation Process

Unsteady-State Material and Energy Balances

Unsteady-State Material Balance

Unsteady-State Energy Balance



*Every chapter includes learning objectives, homework problems, and references.

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Nayef Ghasem is an associate professor of chemical engineering at the United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain. Previously, he taught at the University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A member of IChemE and ACS, he has published more than 40 journal papers, primarily in modeling and simulation, bifurcation theory, gas–liquid separation using membrane contactors, and fabrication of polymeric hollow fiber membranes. He has also authored Computer Methods in Chemical Engineering, published by CRC Press. He holds a B.Sc and M.Sc from the Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey, and a Ph.D from the University of Salford, Greater Manchester, UK.

Redhouane Henda is a professor of chemical engineering at the Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. His research focuses on nanoscience and technology of thin films and process engineering of complex systems. He has received fellowships from the French Ministry of Higher Education and the German Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, as well as a scholarship from the Research Council of Norway. He earned his M.Sc and Ph.D from the Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, France, and spent a postdoctoral fellowship at the Universität Heidelberg, Germany. Widely published, he has served on the editorial boards of numerous journals and developed computer modules for research and education.


"Throughout this book the underlying theory of material and energy balances is clearly and succinctly presented by the authors before extensive worked examples are used to demonstrate its application to a range of process problems including multiple units systems with and without reactions occurring. This would allow the book to be used as a main text for an entry level undergraduate course in fundamental chemical process principles or used by practising engineers for both reference and self-study. The authors have clearly given a lot of thought on how to present the material in a user-friendly way to maximize learning and facilitate understanding of core chemical engineering principles."
—Dr. Diane Rossiter, Retired Senior University Teacher, The University of Sheffield, UK

"The materials are well organized in a step-by-step style and engage readers greatly. In addition to helping chemical engineering students to directly select and master the topics of their interest, the book may even help non-chemical engineering students to grasp the most important basics of chemical engineering. A quick understanding of basic chemical engineering concepts is delivered briefly and clearly without losing accuracy and depth. The examples provided in the book are great for the readers to comprehend the concepts, calculations, and chemical unit operations."
—Zhaolin (Forest) Wang, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Canada

"The contents are excellent. Starting with detailed analysis of a single unit without chemical reaction and then gradually moving into multiple units with chemical reactions is a very good approach to train chemical engineering students."
—Professor Iqbal M Mujtaba, University of Bradford, UK