4th Edition

Principles of Research in Behavioral Science Fourth Edition

By Mary Kite, Bernard E Whitley Copyright 2018
    852 Pages
    by Routledge

    852 Pages
    by Routledge

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of research methods in the behavioral sciences, focusing primarily on the conceptual issues inherent in conducting research. It covers topics that are often omitted from other texts, including measurement issues, correlational research, qualitative research, and integrative literature reviews. The book also includes discussions of diversity issues as they related to behavioral science research. New to this edition are chapter boxes that focus on applied issues related to each chapter topic. Throughout the book, readable examples and informative tables and figures are provided. The authors also take a contemporary approach to topics such as research ethics, replication research, and data collection (including internet research).

    Part 1. Introduction

    Chapter 1: Behavioral Science


    Goals of Science

    Key Values of Science

    Scientific Approaches to Knowledge


    Components of Theories

    Characteristics of Theories

    Purposes of Theories

    Criteria for Evaluating Theories


    The Research Process

    Evaluating Research

    Inference in Research

    Theory, Research, and Application

    The Interdependence of Theory, Research, and Application

    The Uses of Behavioral Science and Theory

    Chapter Summary

    Suggestions for Further Reading

    Key Terms


    Chapter 2: Research Strategies: An Overview

    Purposes of Research

    Basic and Applied Research

    Evaluation Research

    Action Research

    Quantitative and Qualitative Research

    Research Strategies

    The Experimental Strategy

    The Case Study Strategy

    The Correlational Strategy

    Comparing the Strategies

    Time Perspectives: Short Term Versus Long Term

    Developmental Research

    Prospective Research

    Outcome Evaluation

    Research Settings: Laboratory Versus Field

    Research Strategies and Research Settings

    Research Settings and Research Participants

    Chapter Summary

    Suggestions for Further Readings

    Key Terms


    Chapter 3: The Ethical Treatment of Research Participants

    Responsibility for Ethical Research

    Ethical Considerations While Planning Research

    Risk of Harm or Deprivation

    Voluntary Participation

    Informed Consent


    Ethical Obligations During Data Collection

    Avoidance of Harm

    Withdrawal of Consent

    Ethical Considerations Following Data Collection

    Alleviating Adverse Effects


    Compensation of Control Groups

    Confidentiality of Data

    The Institutional Review Board

    Membership of the IRB

    Criteria for approving research

    Review procedures

    Research Ethics in Cultural Context

    Examples of Ethical Issues

    Some Guidelines

    Chapter Summary

    Suggested Readings

    Key Terms


    Part 2: Foundations of Research

    Chapter 4: The Professional and Social Responsibilities of Scientists

    Mistakes and Errors in Research

    Consequences of Error

    Incompetence and Negligence

    Questionable Research Practices

    Correcting Mistakes and Errors

    Scientific Misconduct

    Data Fabrication

    Preventing Scientific Misconduct

    Ethical Issues in Publication

    Authorship Credit

    Duplicate Publication


    Using the Results of Research

    The Application of Research Results

    Influencing Decision Makers

    Researcher’s Responsibilities

    Research and the Common Good

    Is Applied Research More Ethical Than Basic Research?

    Should Research on Some Topics Be Banned or Restricted?

    Is There an Ethical Obligation to Conduct Research?

    Chapter Summary

    Suggestions for Further Reading

    Key Terms


    Chapter 5: Formulating a Research Question

    Formulating Research Hypotheses

    Establishing a Background

    Choosing a Topic

    Formulating the Question

    Reviewing the Literature

    Formulating Hypotheses

    Designing the Study

    Writing the Research Proposal

    Replication Research

    Forms of Replication

    Interpreting the Results of Replication Research

    Considerations in Conducting Replication Research

    Replication as Part of a Systematic Research Program

    Designing Research for Utilization

    Knowledge Utilization

    Design Considerations

    Dissemination of Research Results

    Bias in the Formulation of Research Questions

    Personal Values

    Biased Assumptions

    Avoiding Bias

    Chapter Summary

    Suggestions for Further Reading

    Key Terms


    Chapter 6: Developing a Measurement Strategy

    Reliability and Validity

    Manifest Variables and Hypothetical Constructs

    Reliability, Validity, and Measurement Error

    Assessing Reliability

    Forms of Reliability

    Choosing Among the Forms of Reliability

    Standards for Reliability

    Item Response Theory

    Assessing Validity

    Categories of Validity Evidence

    Discriminant Validity

    Relationships Among the Categories of Validity Evidence

    Determining a Measure’s Degree of Validity

    Modalities of Measurement

    Self-Report Measures

    Behavioral Measures

    Physiological Measures

    Implicit Measures

    Choosing a Measurement Modality

    Locating and Evaluating Measures

    Categories of Measures

    Locating Measures

    Evaluating Measures

    Chapter Summary

    Suggestions for Further Reading

    Key Terms


    Chapter 7: The Internal Validity of Research


    Natural Confounds

    Treatment Confounds

    Measurement Confounds

    Threats to Internal Validity

    Time-Related Threats

    Control Groups in Pretest-Posttest Research

    Theoretical Validity

    Selection Threats

    Volunteer bias

    Preexisting groups



    Sources of Reactivity

    Evaluation apprehension

    Controlling Reactivity

    Demand Characteristics

    Sources of Demand Characteristics

    Participant Roles

    Controlling Demand Characteristics

    Experimenter Expectancies

    Types of Expectancy Effects

    Techniques of Control

    Enhancing Internal Validity


    Suggestions for Further Reading

    Key Terms


    Chapter 8: The External Validity of Research

    The Concept of External Validity

    Aspects of External Validity

    Components of External Validity

    The Structural Components of External Validity

    Setting Factors

    Participant Sample Factors

    Research Procedure Factors

    Cultural Factors

    Time Factors

    Time sampling

    Changes over time

    The Functional and Conceptual Components of External Validity

    The Functional Component

    The Conceptual Component

    Relationships Among the Components of External Validity

    Assessing External Validity

    Assessing Generalizability

    Assessing Ecological Validity

    Laboratory Research, Natural Setting Research, and External Validity

    Laboratory Research and Ecological Validity

    External Validity and Internal Validity

    Chapter Summary

    Suggestions for Further Reading

    Key Terms


    Part 3: Research Design

    Chapter 9: True Experiments

    Manipulating the Independent Variables

    Conditions of the Independent Variable

    Additional Control and Comparison Conditions

    Characteristics of a Good Manipulation

    Using Multiple Stimuli

    Controlling Extraneous Variance

    Holding Extraneous Variables Constant

    Between-Subjects Designs

    Within-Subjects Designs

    Multiple-Group Designs

    Quantitative Independent Variables

    Qualitative Independent Variables

    Interpreting the Results of Multiple-Group Experiments

    Factorial Designs

    The Nature of Factorial Designs

    Interaction Effects

    Forms of Factorial Designs

    Uses for Factorial Designs

    Chapter Summary

    Suggestions for Further Readings

    Key Terms


    Chapter 10: Field Research

    The Problem of Control in Field Settings

    Control Over Variables

    Control Over Research Populations

    Field Experiments

    Choosing a Research Setting

    Implementing the Independent Variable

    Problems in Field Experimentation

    Natural Experiments and Quasi-Experiments

    The Group Comparison Approach

    The Time Series Approach

    Naturalistic Observation

    Categories of Naturalistic Observation

    Nonparticipant observation

    Coding Natural Behaviors

    Problems in Naturalistic Observation

    Chapter Summary

    Suggestions for Further Reading

    Key Terms


    Chapter 11: Correlational Designs

    The Nature of Correlational Research

    Simple Correlation Analysis

    Assumptions of Linearity and Additivity

    Factors Affecting the Correlation Coefficient

    Multifaceted Constructs

    Some Recommendations

    Partial Correlation Analysis

    Multiple Regression Analysis (MRA)

    Forms of MRA

    Information Provided by MRA

    The Problem of Multicollinearity

    MRA as an Alternative to ANOVA

    Some Other Correlational Techniques

    Logistic Regression Analysis

    Multiway Frequency Analysis

    Data Types and Data Analysis

    Chapter Summary

    Suggestions for Further Reading

    Key Terms


    Chapter 12: Factor Analysis, Path Analysis, and Structural Equation Modeling

    Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Uses of Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Considerations in Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Hypothesis Testing

    Measure Validation

    Evaluating Goodness of Fit

    Testing Mediational Hypotheses

    The Causal Steps Strategy

    Path Analysis with Observed Variables

    Structural Equation Modeling

    Prospective Research

    Limits on Interpretation

    Chapter Summary

    Suggestions for Further Reading

    Key Terms


    Chapter 13: The Single-Case Research Strategy

    The Role of Single-Case Research in Psychology

    Some History

    Uses of Single-Case Research

    Validity Criteria in Single-Case Research

    Measurement Criteria

    Replication Criteria

    Control Criteria

    Impact Criteria

    Treatment Criteria

    Case Study Research

    Choosing Cases to Study

    Data Collection

    Single-Case Experiments

    Designs for Single-Case Experiments

    The Importance of a Stable Baseline

    Data Analysis in Single-Case Research

    Qualitative Data

    Quantitative Data

    Chapter Summary

    Suggestions for Further Reading

    Key Terms


    Chapter 14: Qualitative Research and Interviewing

    Rachel Kraus, Ball State University

    The Purpose and Goals of Qualitative Research

    The Nature of Qualitative Research

    Key Characteristics of Qualitative Research

    Qualitative Research Questions

    How to Choose a Qualitative Research Question

    Qualitative Research as "Work"

    How is Qualitative Research Evaluated?

    Reliability in Qualitative Research

    Validation Strategies


    Designing Qualitative Research

    Grounded Theory



    Non-probability Samples in Qualitative Research

    Sample Size and Theoretical Saturation

    Data Collection

    Qualitative Interviews

    After the Interview


    Data Analysis


    Interpreting the Data

    The Use of Software Programs in Qualitative Research

    Writing About Qualitative Research

    Reflexivity and Representation



    Using Participants’ Quotes

    Writing Strategies Across Qualitative Approaches

    Chapter Summary

    Suggestions for Further Reading

    Key Terms


    Chapter 15: Survey Research

    Asking Questions

    Open- and Closed-Ended Questions

    Question Wording

    Obtaining Answers

    Levels of Measurement

    Response Formats

    Choosing a Response Format

    Multi-Item Scales

    Advantages of Multi-Item Scales

    Types of Multi-Item Scales

    Response Biases

    Question-Related Biases

    Person-Related Biases

    Cultural Response Sets

    Interpreting Responses

    Questionnaire Design

    Question Order

    Constructing Questionnaire


    Using Existing Measures

    Questionnaire Administration

    Group Administration

    Online Surveys

    Telephone Interviews

    In-Person Interviews

    Comparing the Methods

    Chapter Summary

    Suggestions for Further Reading

    Key Terms


    Part 4: Collecting and Interpreting Data

    Chapter 16: Evaluation Research

    Goal Definition

    Needs Assessment

    Evaluability Assessment

    Program Monitoring

    The Target Population

    Program Implementation

    Unintended Effects

    Program Monitoring and Program Development

    Impact Assessment

    Criteria for Evaluating Impact

    Answering the Research Questions

    Research Designs

    Interpreting Null Results

    Sources of null results

    When "null" results are not null

    Efficiency Analysis

    Cost-Benefit Analysis

    Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    Information Utilization

    Criteria for Research Utilization

    The Political Context

    Measuring Change

    Difference Scores

    The Reliable Change Index

    Chapter Summary

    Suggestions for Further Reading

    Key Terms


    Chapter 17: Data Collection

    Research Participants

    Populations and Samples


    Sample Size

    Research Procedures

    Effective Research Settings

    Effective Instructions

    "Debugging" the Procedure

    The Data Collection Session

    The Post-Experimental Interview

    Research Assistants

    Using the Internet to Collect Data

    The Validity of Web-Based Data

    Advantages of Internet Research

    Limitations of Internet Research

    Participant Recruitment

    Ethical Issues

    Archival Data

    Types of Archives

    Advantages of Archival Data

    Limitations of Archival Data

    Chapter Summary

    Suggestions for Further Reading

    Key Terms


    Chapter 18: Interpreting Research Results

    Describing the Results of the Research

    The Nature of the Relationship

    Real Versus Chance Relationships

    Effect Size and Importance

    Inference in Behavioral Science Research

    Knowledge as a Social Construction

    Bias in Interpreting Data

    Making Valid Inferences

    Null Results

    Uses of the Null Hypothesis

    Prejudice Against the Null Hypothesis

    Accepting the Null Hypothesis

    Integrating the Results of Research

    Identifying Implications for Theory

    Identifying Implications for Research

    Identifying Implications for Application

    Chapter Summary

    Suggestions for Further Reading

    Key Terms


    Chapter 19: Literature Reviewing

    Purposes of Literature Reviews

    Conceptual Literature Reviews

    Integrative Literature Reviews

    Defining the Research Question

    The Scope of the Question

    Approaches to Answering the Question

    Finding Relevant Research

    Deciding Which Studies to Use

    Include All Studies

    Include Only Published Studies

    Include Only Valid Studies

    Stratified Sampling

    Expert Judgment

    Integrating the Results of Primary Research

    Levels of Analysis

    Operationally Defining Study Outcome

    Narrative Literature Reviews



    Best Evidence Literature Reviewing

    Interpreting the Results

    The Effects of Judgment Calls

    The Correlational Nature of Moderator Variable Analyses

    Meaning versus Numbers in Meta-Analysis

    Evaluating Literature Reviews

    Understanding Meta-Analysis

    Defining the Research Question

    Locating Relevant Research

    Deciding Which Studies to Include

    Integrating the Results of the Studies

    Interpreting the Results of the Meta-Analysis

    Chapter Summary

    Suggestions for Further Reading

    Key Terms




    Mary E. Kite is Professor of Social Psychology at Ball State University, USA. She received her Ph.D. from Purdue University. Her research focuses on stereotyping and prejudice toward women, gays and lesbians, and older adults. She has served as President of The Society for the Teaching of Psychology (STP, APA Division 2) and Secretary-Treasurer and President of the Midwestern Psychological Association (MPA). She is a Fellow of APA Divisions 2, 8, 9, 35, and 44 and of the Association for Psychological Science and MPA. In 2014, she received the Charles L. Brewer Distinguished Teaching Award from the American Psychological Foundation. She co-authored the third edition of The Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination with Bernard E. Whitley, Jr.

    Bernard E. Whitley, Jr. is Professor Emeritus of Psychological Science at Ball State University, USA. He received his Ph.D. in Social Psychology from the University of Pittsburgh. He is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association and charter member and Fellow of the Association for Psychological Science. His research interests focus on the roles of ideological variables in prejudice, and he has published in many journals including Psychological Bulletin, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, and Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. His other books include The Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination with Mary E. Kite and Academic Dishonesty: An Educator’s Guide (2002) with Patricia Keith-Spiegel.