Principles of Structural Design: Wood, Steel, and Concrete, Second Edition, 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Principles of Structural Design

Wood, Steel, and Concrete, Second Edition, 2nd Edition

By Ram S. Gupta, Ram S. Gupta

CRC Press

528 pages | 150 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2014-04-22
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A structural design book with a code-connected focus, Principles of Structural Design: Wood, Steel, and Concrete, Second Edition introduces the principles and practices of structural design. This book covers the section properties, design values, reference tables, and other design aids required to accomplish complete structural designs in accordance with the codes.

What’s New in This Edition:

  • Reflects all the latest revised codes and standards
  • The text material has been thoroughly reviewed and expanded, including a new chapter on concrete design
  • Suitable for combined design coursework in wood, steel, and concrete
  • Includes all essential material—the section properties, design values, reference tables, and other design aids required to accomplish complete structural designs according to the codes
  • This book uses the LRFD basis of design for all structures

This updated edition has been expanded into 17 chapters and is divided into four parts. The first section of the book explains load and resistance factor design, and explores a unified approach to design. The second section covers wood design and specifically examines wood structures. It highlights sawn lumber, glued laminated timber, and structural composite/veneer lumber. The third section examines steel structures. It addresses the AISC 2010 revisions to the sectional properties of certain structural elements, as well as changes in the procedure to design the slip-critical connection. The final section includes a chapter on T beams and introduces doubly reinforced beams.

Principles of Structural Design: Wood, Steel, and Concrete, Second Edition was designed to be used for joint coursework in wood, steel, and concrete design.


"From design loads determination and building codes, to various design philosophies, to load distribution and load paths, the student is given a road-map for designing a structure that answers their common question of ‘where do I begin?’… It is concise and focuses on applications rather than extensive theoretical background and current research…"

––Caesar Abi Shdid, Ph.D., P.E., Lebanese American University, Beirut, Lebanon

"…a valuable source that provides efficient and authoritative guidance for students learning the fundamentals of codes and standards in structural material design."

––Dr. Peggi L. Clouston, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA

"… a comprehensive book covering design criteria, computation of loads, and design of structural members and connections using steel, concrete, and wood. When tied with structural analysis and modeling tools, the book provides the reader with a path for understanding and designing structural systems."

––Prof. S. D. Rajan, Arizona State University, Phoenix, USA

Table of Contents

Section I Design Loads

Design Criteria

Classification of Buildings

Building Codes

Standard Unit Loads

Tributary Area

Working Stress Design, Strength Design, and Unified Design of Structures

Elastic and Plastic Designs

Combinations of Loads

Other Loads

Continuous Load Path for Structural Integrity


Primary Loads: Dead Loads and Live Loads

Dead Loads

Live Loads

Floor Live Loads

Other Provisions for Floor Live Loads

Roof Live Loads, Lr


Snow Loads


Minimum Snow Load for Low-Slope Roofs

Balanced Snow Load

Rain-on-Snow Surcharge

Partial Loading of the Balanced Snow Load

Unbalanced across the Ridge Snow Load

Snow Drift from a Higher to a Lower Roof

Sliding Snow Load on Lower Roof

Sliding Snow Load on Separated Structures


Wind Loads


Definition of Terms

Procedures for MWFRS

Simplified Procedure for MWFRS for Low-Rise Buildings

Procedures for Components and Cladding

Simplified Procedure for Components and Cladding for

Low-Rise Buildings


Earthquake Loads

Seismic Forces

Seismic Design Procedures


Ground Motion Response Accelerations

Importance Factor, I

Seismic Design Categories

Exemptions from Seismic Designs

Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure to Determine Seismic Force

Distribution of Seismic Forces

Design Earthquake Load

Soil–Structure Interaction


Section II Wood Structures

Wood Specifications

Engineering Properties of Sawn Lumber

Reference Design Values for Sawn Lumber

Adjustments to the Reference Design Values for Sawn Lumber

Load Resistance Factor Design with Wood

Structural Glued Laminated Timber

Reference Design Values for Glued Laminated Timber

Adjustment Factors for Glued Laminated Timber

Structural Composite Lumber

Summary of Adjustment Factors


Flexure and Axially Loaded Wood Structures


Design of Beams

Bending Criteria of Design

Beam Stability Factor, CL

Shear Criteria

Deflection Criteria

Creep Deflection

Bearing at Supports

Design of Axial Tension Members

Design of Columns

Column Stability Factor, CP

Design for Combined Bending and Compression


Wood Connections

Types of Connections and Fasteners

Dowel-Type Fasteners (Nails, Screws, Bolts, Pins)

Yield Limit Theory for Laterally Loaded Fasteners

Yield Mechanisms and Yield Limit Equations

Reference Design Values for Lateral Loads (Shear Connections)

Reference Design Values for Withdrawal Loads

Adjustments of the Reference Design Values

Nail and Screw Connections

Bolt and Lag Screw Connections


Section III Steel Structures

Tension Steel Members

Properties of Steel

Provisions to Design Steel Structures

Unified Design Specifications

Design of Tension Members

Tensile Strength of Elements

Block Shear Strength

Design Procedure for Tension Members


Compression Steel Members

Strength of Compression Members or Columns

Local Buckling Criteria

Flexural Buckling Criteria

Effective Length Factor for Slenderness Ratio

Limit States for Compression Design

Nonslender Members

Single-Angle Members

Built-Up Members

Slender Compression Members

Use of the Compression Tables


Flexural Steel Members

Basis of Design

Nominal Strength of Steel in Flexure

Lateral Unsupported Length

Fully Plastic Zone with Adequate Lateral Support

Inelastic Lateral Torsional Buckling Zone

Modification Factor Cb

Elastic Lateral Torsional Buckling Zone

Noncompact and Slender Beam Sections for Flexure

Compact Full Plastic Limit

Noncompact Flange Local Buckling

Slender Flange Local Buckling

Summary of Beam Relations

Design Aids

Shear Strength of Steel

Beam Deflection Limitations


Combined Forces on Steel Members

Design Approach to Combined Forces

Combination of Tensile and Flexure Forces

Combination of Compression and Flexure Forces: The

Beam-Column Members

Braced Frame Design

Magnification Factor for Sway, B2

K Values for Unbraced Frames

Unbraced Frame Design

Open-Web Steel Joists

Joist Girders


Steel Connections

Types of Connections and Joints

Bolted Connections

Specifications for Spacing of Bolts and Edge Distance

Bearing-Type Connections

Slip-Critical Connections

Tensile Load on Bolts

Combined Shear and Tensile Forces on Bolts

Welded Connections

Groove Welds

Fillet Welds

Strength of Weld

Frame Connections

Shear or Simple Connection for Frames

Single-Plate Shear Connection for Frames

Moment-Resisting Connection for Frames


Section IV Reinforced Concrete Structures

Flexural Reinforced Concrete Members

Properties of Reinforced Concrete

Compression Strength of Concrete

Design Strength of Concrete

Strength of Reinforcing Steel

Load Resistance Factor Design Basis of Concrete

Reinforced Concrete Beams

Derivation of the Beam Relations

Strain Diagram and Modes of Failure

Balanced and Recommended Steel Percentages

Minimum Percentage of Steel

Strength Reduction Factor for Concrete

Specifications for Beams

Analysis of Beams

Design of Beams

One-Way Slab

Specifications for Slabs

Analysis of One-Way Slab

Design of One-Way Slab


Doubly and T Reinforced Concrete Beams

Doubly Reinforced Concrete Beams

Analysis of Doubly Reinforced Beams

Design of Doubly Reinforced Beams

Monolithic Slab and Beam (T Beams)

Analysis of T Beams

Design of T Beams


Shear and Torsion in Reinforced Concrete

Stress Distribution in Beam

Diagonal Cracking of Concrete

Strength of Web (Shear) Reinforced Beam

Shear Contribution of Concrete

Shear Contribution of Web Reinforcement

Specifications for Web (Shear) Reinforcement

Analysis for Shear Capacity

Design for Shear Capacity

Torsion in Concrete

Provision for Torsional Reinforcement


Compression and Combined Forces Reinforced Concrete Members

Types of Columns

Strength of Spirals

Specifications for Columns

Analysis of Axially Loaded Columns

Design of Axially Loaded Columns

Short Columns with Combined Loads

Effects of Moment on Short Columns

Characteristics of the Interaction Diagram

Application of the Interaction Diagram

Analysis of Short Columns for Combined Loading

Design of Short Columns for Combined Loading

Long or Slender Columns





About the Authors

Ram S. Gupta earned a master’s in engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Roorkee, India, and a PhD from Polytechnic University, New York. He is a registered professional engineer in Rhode Island and Massachusetts, and is currently working as a professor of engineering at Roger Williams University (RWU), Bristol, Rhode Island. Dr. Gupta is president of Delta Engineers Inc., a Rhode Island-based consulting company. Besides contributing to a very large number of research papers, Dr. Gupta has authored three books including Principles of Structural Design: Wood, Steel, and Concrete (Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL, 2010).

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Construction / General