Privileged Goods: Commoditization and Its Impact on Environment and Society, 1st Edition (e-Book) book cover

Privileged Goods

Commoditization and Its Impact on Environment and Society, 1st Edition

By Jack P. Manno

CRC Press

280 pages

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pub: 1999-10-25
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Description

What are the obstacles in the way of effectively solving the environmental crises of our time? What can we do to overcome them? These may be two of the most important questions heading into the 21st century. Organized human societies have the ability to completely change the world. While we have excelled at building, destroying and rebuilding, we h

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments, About the Author, Chapter 1 Introduction, Chapter 2 The privileged qualities of commodities, 2.1 The process of commoditization, 2.2 Examples of how commoditization works, 2.3 The attributes of commodities, 2.3.1 Ability to assign and protect property rights, 2.3.2 Degree of mobility and transportability, 2.3.3 Degree of universality and particularity, 2.3.4 Systems vs. products, 2.3.5 Cooperation vs. competition, 2.3.6 Degree of energy concentration, 2.3.7 Embodied knowledge vs. user knowledge, 2.3.8 The substitution of labor by technology, 2.3.9 Community cooperation vs. individual consumption, 2.3.10 Stability and predictability vs. fluctuations and surprise, 2.3.11 Design with vs. against nature, 2.3.12 Concrete vs. abstract, 2.3.13 Tradition vs. innovation, 2.3.14 Simplification, 2.3.15 Time frame of benefits, 2.3.16 Sufficiency vs. efficiency, 2.3.17 Commoditization and GNP, 2.4 Conclusion, Chapter 3 Evolution, systems, and commoditization, 3.1 Introduction, 3.2 Commoditization and evolutionary theory, 3.3 The natural selection of commodities, 3.4 Commoditization and systems, 3.5 Conclusion, Chapter 4 Commoditization and the distortions of development, 4.1 Introduction, 4.2 Unfair competition and comparisons, 4.3 Industrial or high-input agriculture vs. low-input agriculture, 4.3.1 Indigenous agricultural systems, 4.3.2 Productivity and unfair comparisons, 4.3.3 Research and development, 4.4 Health care and health services, 4.5 Environmental pollution control and the 4Rs, 4.6 Transportation, 4.7 Science and academia, 4.7.1 An attempt at high commodity potential ecology, 4.8 Electricity sector, 4.9 Conclusion, Chapter 5 Systematic oppression, 5.1 Introduction, 5.2 Linking oppression and commoditization, 5.3 How to build community, 5.4 Conquest, money, and commoditization, 5.5 Commoditization and the oppression of indigenous people, 5.6 The legacy of colonialism in the modern global economy, 5.7 Commoditization and the oppression of women, 5.8 Commoditization and class oppression, 5.9 The underdevelopment of imagination, 5.10 Conclusion, Chapter 6 The institutional development of the commoditized economy, 6.1 Introduction, 6.2 European foundations, 6.2.1 France and Spain, 6.2.2 The United Provinces and Britain, 6.3 Preindustrial commercial institutions, 6.3.1 Legal Foundations of Capitalism, 6.3.2 Bills of exchange, insurance, and double-entry bookkeeping, 6.3.3 The "Spirit of Capitalism", 6.4 The rise of industrialism and the modern economy, 6.4.1 The context for the Industrial Revolution, 6.4.2 The Industrial Revolution, 6.4.3 The rise of the corporation, 6.5 The American experience, 6.5.1 Constitutional foundations and the legal impetus for development, 6.5.2 Reform and adaptation, Chapter 7 Ecology and commoditization, 7.1 Sustainable development and the challenge of ecology, 7.2 Ecological principles and economic implications, 7.2.1 Economic systems are subsets of ecological systems: the principle of ecosystem primacy, 7.2.2 Energy is the primary natural resource: the principles of entropy and conservation, 7.2.3 Efficiency is enhanced by working with natural flows and processes rather than against them: the principles of appropriate technology and ecosystem thinking, 7.2.4 Contradictory goals cannot be maximized at the same time and must be balanced: The principles of homeostasis and optimality, 7.2.5 Scale and level of organization matter: the principle of cooperative hierarchical organization, 7.3 Conclusion, Chapter 8 Toward a coordinated decommoditization strategy, 8.1 Introduction, 8.2 The policy wedges, 8.3 The role of participatory democracy, 8.4 The powers of government, 8.5 Steps in a decommoditization strategy, 8.5.1 Getting private money out of politics, 8.5.2 Supporting LCP public services, 8.6 Government reforms for decommoditization, 8.6.1 Protecting human rights, 8.6.2 Defense and public safety, 8.6.3 Government infrastructure for the provision of public goods, 8.6.4 Provision of public goods and services, 8.6.5 Government regulations for environmental protection, commerce, trade, and land use, 8.6.5.1 Trade, 8.6.5.2 Environmental protection, 8.6.5.3 Corporate influence, 8.6.5.4 Economic development and modernization, 8.6.6 Taxation, public spending, and the supply of money, 8.6.6.1 Tax policies, 8.6.6.2 Expenditure policies — subsidies and government purchases, 8.7 Credit policies, 8.8 Building a movement, References, Index

About the Author

Jack P. Manno is a cross-disciplinary scholar and writer, the Executive Director of the New York Great Lakes Research Consortium, and an adjunct Associate Professor in the Faculty of Environmental Studies at the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry in Syracuse, NY. He is also President of Great Lakes United, a coalition of 170 organizations in Canada and the U.S. including environmental activists, First Nations and Native American organizations, conservationists, hunting and fishing clubs, and others working for the protection and restoration of the Great Lakes–St. Lawrence Ecosystem of North America. For the past 3 years Jack has been affiliated with the Global Ecological Integrity Project, a multi-disciplinary team of ecologists, philosophers, legal scholars, and economists working to improve understanding of the practical implications of the concept of ecological integrity in a range of ecosystems around the world. He has written extensively on the dynamics of social and political systems, including the militarization of the U.S. space program, the role of nongovernmental organizations in world environmental politics, and others. He can be contacted at [email protected]

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
BUS042000
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS / Management Science
NAT011000
NATURE / Environmental Conservation & Protection
SCI020000
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / Ecology
TEC010000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / General