Process Chemistry of Lubricant Base Stocks: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Process Chemistry of Lubricant Base Stocks

1st Edition

By Thomas R. Lynch

CRC Press

392 pages | 203 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9780849338496
pub: 2007-09-21
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Description

Advances in processing methods are not only improving the quality and yield of lubricant base stocks, they are also reducing the dependence on more expensive crude oil starting materials.  Process Chemistry of Lubricant Base Stocks provides a comprehensive understanding of the chemistry behind the processes involved in petroleum base stock production from crude oil fractions.

This book examines hydroprocessing technologies that, driven by the demand for higher performance in finished lubricants, have transformed processing treatments throughout the industry. The author relates the properties of base stocks to their chemical composition and describes the process steps used in their manufacture. The book highlights catalytic processes, including hydrocracking, hydrofinishing, and catalytic dewaxing. It also covers traditional solvent-based separation methods used to remove impurities, enhance performance, and improve oxidation resistance. The final chapters discuss the production of Food Grade white oils and paraffins and the gas-to-liquids processes used to produce highly paraffinic base stocks via Fischer-Tropsch chemistry.

Process Chemistry of Lubricant Base Stocks provides historical and conceptual background to the technologies used to make base stocks, thorough references, and a unique emphasis on chemical, not just engineering, aspects of lubricant processing—making this book an ideal and practical reference for scientists across a wide range of disciplines.

Table of Contents

Preface

Introduction

Base Stocks: General

Base Stocks from Crudes

Base Stock Properties

Feedstocks and Base Stocks: General Compositional Aspects

API Base Stock Classifications

Viscosity Grades for Industrial Lubricants

Society for Automotive Engineers Viscosity Classification for Engine Oils

API Engine Oil Classifications

Viscosity, Pour Points, Boiling Points, and Chemical Structure

Viscosity

Pour Points and Chemical Structure

Boiling Points and Structure

Development of the Viscosity Index Concept and Relationship to Hydrocarbon Composition

Viscosity Index

Viscosity Index and Composition

Compositional Methods

Introduction

n-d-M Method

Density and Viscosity Relationships: The Viscosity-Gravity Constant

Refractive Index and Density: Refractivity Intercept

Refractive Index and Reciprocal of Carbon Number

n-d-M Method: Development

NMR Spectroscopy: Background

1H and 13C Applications

Wax Analyses

Some 13C NMR Applications

Oxidation Resistance of Base Stocks

Introduction

Studies of Solvent Refined Base Stocks

Impact of Aromatics and Sulfur Levels

Lubricant Performance, Composition, and the Trend to Hydrocracked Base Stocks

Conventional Base Stock Production: Solvent Refining, Solvent Dewaxing, and Finishing

Solvent Refining

Solvent Dewaxing

Finishing Solvent Refining Lube Base Stocks

Lubes Hydrocracking

Introduction

Group II Base Stock Production

Group III Base Stocks

Chemistry of Hydroprocessing

Introduction

Hydrodearomatization

HDA: Kinetic Aspects

HDA: Equilibria

HDA: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Formation

Hydrodesulfurization

Hydrodenitrification

Hydrocracking

Process Modeling

Urea Dewaxing and the BP Catalytic Process

Introduction

Wax Composition and Properties

Urea Dewaxing

Urea Dewaxing: Commercial Applications

The BP Catalytic Dewaxing Process

Dewaxing by Hydrocracking and Hydroisomerization

Dewaxing by Wax Cracking

Dewaxing by Hydroisomerization

Technical and Food Grade White Oils and Highly Refined Paraffins

White Oils

Refined Waxes

Base Stocks From Fischer-Tropsch Wax and The Gas-to-Liquids Process

The Fischer-Tropsch Process

Product Distributions

Base Stock Properties

GTL Processes

13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Applications to Fischer-Tropsch Base Stocks

About the Series

Chemical Industries

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI013060
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Industrial & Technical