Racism and Cultural Diversity
Cultivating Racial Harmony through Counselling, Group Analysis, and Psychotherapy
The author writes for all those interested in the dynamics of racism, from professionals in counselling, group analysis and psychotherapy working in multiracial and multicultural societies to those exposed to racism who need help in dealing with the impact of their experiences. She also addresses the concept of victims becoming perpetrators if support is not given to contain the process. Herself a group analyst, the author experienced at first hand racial discrimination within the system, but rather than succumb has instead produced an enduring and proficient work that draws heavily on personal experience. Combining years of counselling skill with a natural compassion, she makes the subject of racism approachable, thus motivating all those wanting to explore the issues. For people whose experience of broken attachments crosses racial lines, this book is possibly the first to use Bowlby's Attachment Theory as a framework for understanding racism.
Table of Contents
Foreword -- Introduction -- Racial Discrimination: A Cry in the Wilderness? -- Introduction -- What is racism? -- The impact of internalized racism on delivering therapy -- The struggle to complain about racism -- The black mother as a container -- The internal investigation -- A push into the wilderness: the exile experience -- First Employment Tribunal: white domination -- The return of the prodigal daughter: depressive position -- The white couple as a container -- The straw that broke my back -- Second Employment Tribunal: Black-on-Black betrayal -- Betrayal and regression -- Consequences of complaining about racism -- What's in a name? -- Analysis of the second Employment Tribunal -- Third Employment Tribunal: the return of the spirit -- Forewarned is forearmed -- The cutting of the umbilical cord -- Making use of the black container -- Abandonment: Hide and Seek Until You Find Yourself -- Introduction -- Personal history of abandonment -- Sam's death: my past and present collide -- Hide and seek game -- Reaction to abandonment: the loss of Ruby -- Mother’s death: the impact of planned absence -- Obediah's death: the impact of unplanned absence -- Reaction to the group ending: unspeakable rage -- Disillusionment: the attack of the absent breast -- Finding themselves: pain is gain -- Where is the hope in therapy? -- Celebrating the final separation -- Finding myself: the halls of mirrors -- Celebration of two cultures -- Can Psychotherapy -- Introduction -- Choice of the research topic -- The grounding theories -- The history of skin colour -- The minority identity development model -- The White identity development model -- Psychoanalytical interpretation of racism -- Qualitative methodology -- Procedure -- Research findings: important qualities of a counsellor -- Research findings: important awareness qualities of a counsellor -- Analysis of predictable findings -- Analysis of unpredictable findings -- Reflexive analysis -- Discussion of findings -- Issues for training and clinical practice -- Methodology evaluation -- The vignette: working with racism in therapy -- Reflections -- Personal Development -- Introduction -- What I brought to the personal development group -- Learning styles -- Personal Development Group in action -- Personal development meetings -- Reflecting on working on the research -- Conclusion -- Addendum -- Stephen Lawrence -- The video presentation -- Research questionnaire