Written by the leading names in this field, this book introduces the technical properties, design and fabrication details, measurement results, and applications of three-dimensional silicon radiation sensors. Such devices are currently used in the ATLAS experiment at the European Centre for Particle Physics (CERN) for particle tracking in high energy physics.
These sensors are the radiation hardest devices ever fabricated and have applications in ground-breaking research in neutron detection, medical dosimetry and space technologies and more. Chapters explore the essential features of silicon particle detectors, interactions of radiation with matter, radiation damage effects, and micro-fabrication, in addition to a providing historical overview of the field. This book will be a key reference for students and researchers working with sensor technologies.
- The first book dedicated to this unique and growing subject area, which is also widely applicable in high-energy physics, medical physics, space science and beyond
- Authored by Sherwood Parker, the inventor of the concept of 3D detectors; Cinzia Da Vià, who has brought 3DSi technology to application; and Gian-Franco Dalla Betta, a leading figure in the design and fabrication technology of these devices
- Explains to non-experts the essential features of silicon particle detectors, interactions of radiation with matter, radiation damage effects, and micro-fabrication
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction
Chapter 2: Silicon Radiation Sensors
Chapter 3: Radiation Effects in Silicon Sensors
Chapter 4: 3D Sensors
Chapter 5: Fabrication Techniques
Chapter 6: Radiation Hardness in 3D Sensors
Chapter 7: The Industrialization Phase
Chapter 8: Planar Active-edge Sensors
Chapter 9: Applications
Appendix: Silicon Detectors: A Partial History
Cinzia Da Vià is a Professor of Physics at the University of Manchester UK, and currently a visiting Professor at Stony Brook University USA. She received her PhD in Physics from the University of Glasgow, Scotland in 1997 and is an expert in semiconductor detector development for High-Energy Physics and Medical applications where she authored more than 300 papers of which several on the evaluation of the first 3D sensors prototypes ever fabricated. Member of the ATLAS Experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider since 2007, she was the founder and leader of the 3D ATLAS pixel R&D Collaboration (2007-2014), which successfully designed and industrialized the first 3D sensors to be installed in a Collider. 3Ds are successfully operating in the ATLAS experiment since 2014. She is currently involved in novel 3D sensors designs, 3D printed dosimetry, quantum imaging and vertical integration of smart-systems. She is one of the founders of the ERDIT Network to promote Radiation Imaging Technology research across different applications in Europe and a member of the Independent Committee of the ATTRACT initiative, which funds innovative technologies in the field of radiation detection and imaging across Europe.
Gian-Franco Dalla Betta is a Full Professor of Electronics at the University of Trento, Italy. Born in Venice, Italy, in 1967. He received the M.S. degree in electronics engineering from the University of Bologna, Italy, in 1992 and the Ph.D. in microelectronics from the University of Trento, Italy, in 1997. Since 1997 to 2002, he was with the Institute for Scientific and Technological Research (ITC-IRST) of Trento, Italy, as a Researcher and since November 2002, he moved to the University of Trento. His main research expertise is in design, simulation, fabrication and experimental characterization of silicon integrated devices and circuits, with emphasis on radiation sensors and 3D sensors of which he was among the first to design a double-sided layout. On these and related topics he has been the author or co-author of more than 350 papers published in international journals and conference proceedings. As a member of the 3D ATLAS R&D Collaboration from the start he coordinated the design of the 3D pixel sensors that are now installed in the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the first application of this technology in a High-Energy-Physics experiment. His current activities include the development of new 3D sensor designs for neutron and fast timing applications and the coordination of the Italian R&D effort aimed at a new generation of 3D sensors for the Phase 2 Upgrades of the ATLAS and CMS projects at the High Luminosity LHC.
Sherwood Ira Parker (1932 – 2018) was a pioneer in experimental physics. He developed the first scientific silicon readout integrated circuit (Microplex), the first monolithic charged particle sensors, and the first 3D silicon detectors used to prove the existence of the Higgs Boson particle. He collaborated with many leading research scientists and laboratories around the world including CERN, FERMI and SLAC. Dr. Parker also developed detectors for use in digital mammography and held seven patents. These achievements were recognized when he was awarded the Glenn Knoll Radiation Instrumentation Outstanding Achievement Award in 2015 from the IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society. And despite severe mobility impairments caused by ALS, he continued contributing to key innovative work on high-speed signals with 3D radiation detectors.