Rare Isotope Beams (RIBs) are ion beams of exotic radioactive nuclei. The study of these nuclei is key to understanding the limits of nuclear existence, nucleo-synthesis in violent stellar sites such as supernova and merging neutron stars, and the fundamental symmetries of nature. These nuclei also provide a unique probe to study condensed matter and many of them are potentially new radio-isotopes for more effective medical diagnostics and therapy.
The book "Rare Isotope Beams: Theory and Applications" gives an up to date overview of all these aspects of RIB science inside a single cover containing the scientific motivation, production techniques, experimental techniques for studying exotic nuclei, methods used in condensed matter research and medical applications. The emphasis throughout is on concepts to facilitate understanding of the essence of each topic in this diverse and cross-disciplinary field involving nuclear physics, astrophysics and particle accelerators. A brief description of major RIB facilities is also presented.
Exotic s experiments highlighting the intricate nature of such experiments. Another unique feature is the open-ended nature of the discussions bringing out the future challenges and possibilities in this evolving field.
The book offers an excellent overview of concepts and techniques involved in RIB science for fresh researchers entering the field as well as the professionals.
Table of Contents
Rare Ion Beams –the Scientific Motivation. RIB and Nuclear Physics. Nuclear astrophysics: the origin of elements, the stellar evolution and the role of RIB. RIBs and the test of fundamental symmetries of nature. RIB and Condensed Matter Physics. Production of Rare Ion Beams-the two approaches. The two routes of Rare Ion Beam production. The ISOL-post accelerator approach. The IF/PFS approach. Comparison between the ISOL & IF approaches. The combined approaches. Nuclear reactions for production of Rare Ion beams. Production of RIBs in high energy proton induced reactions (Spallation/target fragmentation). Production of RIBs using high and intermediate energy heavy ion induced Projectile Fragmentation and In-flight Fission reactions. Fission induced by low energy neutrons, protons and gamma rays.Production of RIBs using Low Energy Heavy Ions above the Coulomb barrier. Targets for RIB production. High power Targets for ISOL facilities. Types of Target material. R&D for future ISOL target. Target station in ISOL method. Targets for PFS facilities. High power beam dumps. Ion Sources for RIB production in ISOL type facilities. Ion-sources for +1 charge state production. Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) Ion Source. The EBIS Charge-breeder. Positioning the first ion-source away from the target (the HeJRT). Accelerators for RIB production and post-acceleration. DC Primary Accelerators. Cyclic Primary Accelerators. Linear Accelerators. Beam acceleration and charge stripper. RIB Post – Accelerators. Experimental Techniques. Introduction. Separation of isotopes in ISOL and PFS type RIB facilities. Isotope separation in ISOL type RIB facilities. Separation in IN-FLIGHT separators at intermediate and relativistic energies (~ 50 to 1500 MeV/u). Measurement of Mass. Mass measurements in Storage Ring. Measurement of ground state properties of nuclei using Laser Spectroscopic techniques. Matter radii of drip-line isotopes through measurements of interaction cross-sections. Measurement of half-life of exotic nuclei. Coulomb Excitation and study of exotic nuclei. Measurement of cross-sections for nuclear astrophysics. EDM experiments. Overview of major RIB facilities worldwide. Major ISOL type RIB facilities. Major projectile fragment separator (PFS) type RIB facilities. Specialized facilities
Alok Chakrabarti former Director, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC), Kolkata, and former Raja Ramanna Fellow at VECC is an accomplished Physicist and a leader who has pioneered two latest fields of nuclear physics in India – Exotic Nuclei and Radioactive Ion Beams. He has built state-of-art experimental facilities and accelerators, and used these to produce highly credible research output. His research has led to more than70 publications in international peer-reviewed journals and more than 80 publications in symposia. The RIB and RFQ activities were covered by Nature India in 2010. Dr. Chakrabarti has guided more than a dozen students for their PhD. He is also serving as referee for journals such as "European Physics Journal A", "Review of Scientific Instruments", "Pramana", "Nuclear Instruments and Methods" and "Ceramics International" and serves on the Scientific Committees of major international conferences in the field of particle accelerators.
Vaishali Naik is presently serving as Head, RIB Facilities Group at VECC Kolkata. A post-graduate in physics from Dept. of Physics, University of Pune, Dr. Naik graduated from the 33rd batch of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai. She joined VECC in the year 1991 and started her career as an experimental nuclear physicist. She later started working on particle accelerator development for the RIB programme where she played a leading role in design and development of ECR ion sources and RFQ linac and developed a gas-jet ECR technique that led to first successful production of RIB using the facility at VECC. Recipient of DAE Scientific and Technical Excellence award and Group Achievement Awards, Dr. Naik has published more than 30 papers in reputed peer reviewed journals. She is presently guiding several students for their PhD as Professor in Homi Bhabha National Institute (HBNI) and also is the Project Leader for Super-conducting electron linac at VECC that is being built in collaboration with TRIUMF Canada.
Siddhartha Dechoudhur joined Radioactive Ion Beam Facility group, VECC in the year 2001 as Scientific Officer after completing his M.Sc in Physics followed by one year orientation course in the 44th batch of Training School at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai. Since then he has been actively involved in design and development of particle accelerators for the RIB project at VECC. His doctoral thesis, under supervision of Dr. Alok Chakrabarti, was on the development of heavy ion rod type RFQ which is first of its kind in India. Presently he is involved in development of Super-conducting electron linac photo-fission driver which is a joint collaboration between VECC and TRIUMF Canada. Dr. Dechoudhury has been conferred with DAE Young Scientist Award in 2007 and DAE Science and Technology Award in 2010. He has contributed in 30 publications in reputed peer review journals and about 40 papers in national and international particle accelerator conferences.