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Real-Time Environmental Monitoring
Sensors and Systems





ISBN 9781138856899
Published July 26, 2017 by CRC Press
388 Pages 250 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

The natural environment is complex and changes continuously at varying paces. Many, like the weather, we notice from day to day. However, patterns and rhythms examined over time give us the bigger picture. These weather statistics become climate and help us build an understanding of the patterns of change over the long term. Real-Time Environmental Monitoring: Sensors and Systems introduces the fundamentals of environmental monitoring, based on electronic sensors, instruments, and systems that allow real-time and long-term data acquisition, data-logging, and telemetry.

The book details state-of-the-art technology, using a practical approach, and includes applications to many environmental and ecological systems. In the first part of the book, the author develops a story of how starting with sensors, you can progressively build more complex instruments, leading to entire systems that end with databases and web servers. In the second part, he covers a variety of sensors and systems employed to measure environmental variables in air, water, soils, vegetation canopies, and wildlife observation and tracking.

This is an emerging area that is very important to some aspects of environmental assessment and compliance monitoring. Real-time monitoring approaches can facilitate the cost effective collection of data over time and, to some extent, negate the need for sample, collection, handling, and transport to a laboratory, either on-site or off-site. It provides the tools you need to develop, employ, and maintain environmental monitors.

Table of Contents

Introduction
FROM SENSORS TO SYSTEMS
Sensors and Transducers: Basic Circuits
Principles of Electrical Quantities
Circuits: Nodes and Loops
Measuring Voltages, Currents, and Resistances
Sensors
From Sensors to Transducers
Sensor Specifications: Static
Resistive Sensors
Example: From a Light Sensor to a Light Transducer
Example: From Thermistor to Temperature Transducer
Example: A Temperature Transducer for Air, Soil, and Water
Example: Thermocouples
Sensors and Transducers: Bridge Circuits, Dynamic Specifications, More Sensors
Introduction
Balanced Source Voltage Divider
One-Sensor Circuit: Quarter-Bridge
Two-Sensor Circuit: Half-Bridge
Two-Sensor Having Opposite Effect: Half-Bridge
Four Sensor Circuit: Full Bridge
Zero Adjust and Range Adjust
Sensor Specifications
Electrochemical Sensors
Example: Dynamic Specifications and a Potentiometer-Based Wind Direction
Dielectric Properties
Example: Piezoelectric Sensors
Example: Soil Tensiometer
Exercises

Signal Conditioning and Analog-to-Digital Converters
Introduction
Operational Amplifiers
Linearization of the Bridge Circuit Output
Common-Mode Rejection
Instrumentation Amplifier
Spectrum
Noise
Electric Field and Electrostatic Shielding
Isolation
Cold-Junction Compensation
Analog-to-Digital Converter
Current Loop: 4–20 mA
Pulse Sensors
Exercises

Data Acquisition Systems
Introduction
Dataloggers
Applications in Environmental Monitoring
Analog Channels
Real-Time Clock
Communications with a Datalogger
RS-232 Standard
SDI-12
Conditions and Enclosures
Datalogger Example: CR1000
VoltSE
VoltDiff
BrHalf
BrFull
PulseCount
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
Exercises

Single-Board Computers and Microcontrollers
Introduction
Computer Organization and Architecture
Single-Board Computers
ARM Architectures
SBC Based on ARM Processor: Example
System on a Chip
SBC Example: Raspberry Pi
Microcontrollers
MCU Example
In-Circuit Serial Programming
MCU-Based SBC Example: Arduino
Comparing SBCs: TS-7400, Raspberry Pi, Arduino Uno
MCUs as DAS
Example: Arduino Programming
Example: Using Flash Memory for Datalogging with Arduino
Example: Using a Datalogger Shield for Arduino
Example MCU-Based SBC
Exercises

Wireless Technologies and Telemetry
Introduction
Wave Concepts
Radio Wave Spectrum
Radio Wave Propagation
Propagation Models
Phase Shift
Fresnel Zones
Absorption
Radio Frequency Cables
Power in dBm
Antennas
Fade Margin
Polarization
Modulation: Digital Signals
Multiplexing
Spread Spectrum
Wi-Fi
Example: A Low-Cost Wi-Fi Radio
Example: Establishing a Wi-Fi Link to Connect a Weather Station to the Internet
Cellular Phone Network
Argos
Exercises

Wireless Sensor Networks
Introduction
WSN Nodes
Networks: OSI Model
Media Access Control
Multihop Wireless Communication
Network Protocol for Environmental Monitoring
Radio Propagation and WSN
Example of Radio Propagation Experiments
Example: WSN for Soil Moisture in a Hardwood Bottomland Forest
WSN: Energy Scavenging
Exercises

Power
Introduction
Photovoltaic
Solar Radiation and Efficiency
Solar Cell Model
From Cell to Module
Shading and Bypass Diode
Load and Power
Maximum Power Point Tracking
Efficiency and Performance
Tilting the Panel
Atmospheric Effects
Sun Path
Impact of Temperature on Solar Panel
Example: Powering a Remote Monitoring Station
Exercises

Databases and Web Access
Introduction
Examples of Raw Data Format
Relational DBs
Structural Query Language
Extensible Markup Language
Backup
Web Services
Metadata, Standards, Interoperability, and Preservation
Example: Data Collected from Distributed Sensor Systems
Exercises

APPLICATIONS TO ATMOSPHERIC PROCESSES, WATER RESOURCES, TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS, AND WILDLIFE MONITORING
Atmospheric Monitoring
Introduction
Earth’s Atmosphere
Vertical Structure
Atmosphere–Near-Surface Air Quality
Particulate Matter
Stations
Optical Devices
Measurement Methods Using Samples in Closed Path
Optical Absorption Spectroscopy
Chemiluminscent Analyzer
Fluorescence
Nondispersive Infrared
Measurement Methods Using Open Path
Total Column Measurements
Atmosphere–Weather
Example: Measuring UV and TC Ozone Concentration by OAS and DOAS

Hydrology, Hydrodynamics, Water Quality, and Aquatic Ecosystems
Introduction
Water
Water Level and Depth
Water Velocity and Flow
Water Quality Parameters
Water Quality Sensors
Productivity and Respiration
Light as a Function of Depth
Automated Real-Time Biomonitoring

Terrestrial Ecosystems
Introduction
Soil Moisture
Sap Flow
Productivity
Networks
Tree Growth: Dendrometers
Leaf Area
Solar Radiation
Infrared Thermometer

Wildlife Monitoring
Introduction
Radio Tags
Radio Tags in Water
Acoustic Tags in Water
Radio Frequency Identification and Passive Integrated Transponder
Popup Satellite Archival Tags
GPS Trackers
Fish Tags
Data Storage Tags
Camera and Video
Proximity Sensors

Appendix I: Introduction to R

References

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Author(s)

Biography

Miguel F. Acevedo obtained his Ph.D. degree in Biophysics from the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Acevedo has 38 years of academic experience, the last 20 of these at the University of North Texas.

Reviews

"… a reference guide for any type of real-time monitoring system program development. The focus is environmental systems but the applicability is much farther than that. The text is the culmination of work that began almost two decades ago as a partnership between the University of North Texas and The City of Denton and various other stakeholders and partners and has been continued through the efforts of many staff and students alike. The work done has resulted in several master’s theses, doctoral dissertations, articles presentations, workshops and courses as well as many on-the-job applications. This text will be useful for both the in-the-field practitioner and members of academia and the content is exportable to many other areas. It helps to paint a big picture of all the parts of a program. I am really happy this book was put together. I intend to recommend it to several colleagues and many of the staff that work in my organization."
—David H. Hunter, City of Denton/University of North Texas

"This book is an absolutely essential addition to anyone interested in real-time environmental monitoring."
—William T. Waller, Regents Professor Emeritus, University of North Texas