Real-Time Environmental Monitoring: Sensors and Systems, 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Real-Time Environmental Monitoring

Sensors and Systems, 1st Edition

By Miguel F. Acevedo

CRC Press

356 pages | 250 B/W Illus.

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Description

The natural environment is complex and changes continuously at varying paces. Many, like the weather, we notice from day to day. However, patterns and rhythms examined over time give us the bigger picture. These weather statistics become climate and help us build an understanding of the patterns of change over the long term. Real-Time Environmental Monitoring: Sensors and Systems introduces the fundamentals of environmental monitoring, based on electronic sensors, instruments, and systems that allow real-time and long-term data acquisition, data-logging, and telemetry.

The book details state-of-the-art technology, using a practical approach, and includes applications to many environmental and ecological systems. In the first part of the book, the author develops a story of how starting with sensors, you can progressively build more complex instruments, leading to entire systems that end with databases and web servers. In the second part, he covers a variety of sensors and systems employed to measure environmental variables in air, water, soils, vegetation canopies, and wildlife observation and tracking.

This is an emerging area that is very important to some aspects of environmental assessment and compliance monitoring. Real-time monitoring approaches can facilitate the cost effective collection of data over time and, to some extent, negate the need for sample, collection, handling, and transport to a laboratory, either on-site or off-site. It provides the tools you need to develop, employ, and maintain environmental monitors.

Reviews

"… a reference guide for any type of real-time monitoring system program development. The focus is environmental systems but the applicability is much farther than that. The text is the culmination of work that began almost two decades ago as a partnership between the University of North Texas and The City of Denton and various other stakeholders and partners and has been continued through the efforts of many staff and students alike. The work done has resulted in several master’s theses, doctoral dissertations, articles presentations, workshops and courses as well as many on-the-job applications. This text will be useful for both the in-the-field practitioner and members of academia and the content is exportable to many other areas. It helps to paint a big picture of all the parts of a program. I am really happy this book was put together. I intend to recommend it to several colleagues and many of the staff that work in my organization."

—David H. Hunter, City of Denton/University of North Texas

"This book is an absolutely essential addition to anyone interested in real-time environmental monitoring."

—William T. Waller, Regents Professor Emeritus, University of North Texas

Table of Contents

Introduction

FROM SENSORS TO SYSTEMS

Sensors and Transducers: Basic Circuits

Principles of Electrical Quantities

Circuits: Nodes and Loops

Measuring Voltages, Currents, and Resistances

Sensors

From Sensors to Transducers

Sensor Specifications: Static

Resistive Sensors

Example: From a Light Sensor to a Light Transducer

Example: From Thermistor to Temperature Transducer

Example: A Temperature Transducer for Air, Soil, and Water

Example: Thermocouples

Sensors and Transducers: Bridge Circuits, Dynamic Specifications, More Sensors

Introduction

Balanced Source Voltage Divider

One-Sensor Circuit: Quarter-Bridge

Two-Sensor Circuit: Half-Bridge

Two-Sensor Having Opposite Effect: Half-Bridge

Four Sensor Circuit: Full Bridge

Zero Adjust and Range Adjust

Sensor Specifications

Electrochemical Sensors

Example: Dynamic Specifications and a Potentiometer-Based Wind Direction

Dielectric Properties

Example: Piezoelectric Sensors

Example: Soil Tensiometer

Exercises

Signal Conditioning and Analog-to-Digital Converters

Introduction

Operational Amplifiers

Linearization of the Bridge Circuit Output

Common-Mode Rejection

Instrumentation Amplifier

Spectrum

Noise

Electric Field and Electrostatic Shielding

Isolation

Cold-Junction Compensation

Analog-to-Digital Converter

Current Loop: 4–20 mA

Pulse Sensors

Exercises

Data Acquisition Systems

Introduction

Dataloggers

Applications in Environmental Monitoring

Analog Channels

Real-Time Clock

Communications with a Datalogger

RS-232 Standard

SDI-12

Conditions and Enclosures

Datalogger Example: CR1000

VoltSE

VoltDiff

BrHalf

BrFull

PulseCount

Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition

Exercises

Single-Board Computers and Microcontrollers

Introduction

Computer Organization and Architecture

Single-Board Computers

ARM Architectures

SBC Based on ARM Processor: Example

System on a Chip

SBC Example: Raspberry Pi

Microcontrollers

MCU Example

In-Circuit Serial Programming

MCU-Based SBC Example: Arduino

Comparing SBCs: TS-7400, Raspberry Pi, Arduino Uno

MCUs as DAS

Example: Arduino Programming

Example: Using Flash Memory for Datalogging with Arduino

Example: Using a Datalogger Shield for Arduino

Example MCU-Based SBC

Exercises

Wireless Technologies and Telemetry

Introduction

Wave Concepts

Radio Wave Spectrum

Radio Wave Propagation

Propagation Models

Phase Shift

Fresnel Zones

Absorption

Radio Frequency Cables

Power in dBm

Antennas

Fade Margin

Polarization

Modulation: Digital Signals

Multiplexing

Spread Spectrum

Wi-Fi

Example: A Low-Cost Wi-Fi Radio

Example: Establishing a Wi-Fi Link to Connect a Weather Station to the Internet

Cellular Phone Network

Argos

Exercises

Wireless Sensor Networks

Introduction

WSN Nodes

Networks: OSI Model

Media Access Control

Multihop Wireless Communication

Network Protocol for Environmental Monitoring

Radio Propagation and WSN

Example of Radio Propagation Experiments

Example: WSN for Soil Moisture in a Hardwood Bottomland Forest

WSN: Energy Scavenging

Exercises

Power

Introduction

Photovoltaic

Solar Radiation and Efficiency

Solar Cell Model

From Cell to Module

Shading and Bypass Diode

Load and Power

Maximum Power Point Tracking

Efficiency and Performance

Tilting the Panel

Atmospheric Effects

Sun Path

Impact of Temperature on Solar Panel

Example: Powering a Remote Monitoring Station

Exercises

Databases and Web Access

Introduction

Examples of Raw Data Format

Relational DBs

Structural Query Language

Extensible Markup Language

Backup

Web Services

Metadata, Standards, Interoperability, and Preservation

Example: Data Collected from Distributed Sensor Systems

Exercises

APPLICATIONS TO ATMOSPHERIC PROCESSES, WATER RESOURCES, TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS, AND WILDLIFE MONITORING

Atmospheric Monitoring

Introduction

Earth’s Atmosphere

Vertical Structure

Atmosphere–Near-Surface Air Quality

Particulate Matter

Stations

Optical Devices

Measurement Methods Using Samples in Closed Path

Optical Absorption Spectroscopy

Chemiluminscent Analyzer

Fluorescence

Nondispersive Infrared

Measurement Methods Using Open Path

Total Column Measurements

Atmosphere–Weather

Example: Measuring UV and TC Ozone Concentration by OAS and DOAS

Hydrology, Hydrodynamics, Water Quality, and Aquatic Ecosystems

Introduction

Water

Water Level and Depth

Water Velocity and Flow

Water Quality Parameters

Water Quality Sensors

Productivity and Respiration

Light as a Function of Depth

Automated Real-Time Biomonitoring

Terrestrial Ecosystems

Introduction

Soil Moisture

Sap Flow

Productivity

Networks

Tree Growth: Dendrometers

Leaf Area

Solar Radiation

Infrared Thermometer

Wildlife Monitoring

Introduction

Radio Tags

Radio Tags in Water

Acoustic Tags in Water

Radio Frequency Identification and Passive Integrated Transponder

Popup Satellite Archival Tags

GPS Trackers

Fish Tags

Data Storage Tags

Camera and Video

Proximity Sensors

Appendix I: Introduction to R

References

About the Author

Miguel F. Acevedo obtained his Ph.D. degree in Biophysics from the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Acevedo has 38 years of academic experience, the last 20 of these at the University of North Texas.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
NAT011000
NATURE / Environmental Conservation & Protection
SCI013000
SCIENCE / Chemistry / General
TEC010000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / General