This book contains papers, presented at the ITA World Tunnelling Congress 2003 held in Amsterdam, which reflects the state of the art with regard to research, analysis, design and practical experience in almost all fields of tunnelling and underground space construction.
Soft ground tunnelling 1. Experiences with the application of innovative shield tunnelling techniques during the construction of the Betuweroute 2. Westerschelde Tunnel: Integrating the fitting out during the boring process – a complex period 3. Construction of the Copenhagen Metro 4. Railway crossings for Randstad rail in Rotterdam 5. Geotechnical design and construction aspects of the Tsing Tsuen tunnels – contract DB320 KCRC West Rail Project 6. Investigating the settlement above closely spaced multiple tunnel constructions in soft ground 7. Metro Barcelona Línea 9 – Europe’s greatest metro project with shield tunnel boring machines of large diameters 8. Mechanized tunnelling in urban environment: Control of ground response and face stability, when excavating with an EPB machine 9. New developments with EPB-technique in coarse sands by using foaming agents 10. New realisation of driving Shield Tunnel Boring machines in Thailand 11. Tunnelling through the boulder-containing Tachikawa Gravel Bed using a multi-stage shield machine 12. Design and construction of urban tunnels beneath operating railway 13. Research and testing of self-compacting concrete (SCC) for tunnelling under realistic conditions 14. Construction of a triple-spectacle-shape tunnel beneath operating railway tracks 15. Removal of the utility tunnel by shield method to build the underground expressway tunneling 16. F-NAVI shield tunneling method – simultaneous excavation and segment erection for high-speed tunneling 17. DOT shield tunneling beneath residential districts in Nagoya City’s subway construction 18. Simulation of slurry shield behaviour during excavation at Ootsu tunnel 19. Evolution of ideas on tunnel stability during the twentieth century – three milestones from passive timber support to face reinforcement 20. Developments of Mixshields and Hard-rock TBM 21. Accident prevention measures and typical hazards occurring in driving operations with tunnel boring machines based on experience gathered during the construction of the Weser tunnel 22. Ecological aspects of soil conditioning for EPB-TBM projects 23. The New bentonite regeneration technology at the Westerschelde tunnel 24. The Genoa Underground: Construction of the Principe-Caricamento-Le Grazie stretch 25. A study on types of solidified shape of urethane grout forepoling to the softground tunnel 26. Construction and field observation of twin tunnels in sandy soil with confined water 27. Cross-connections for Botlek Railway tunnel in the Netherlands 28. Implementation of monitoring strategy Hermes at the Green Heart tunnel Research and development 29. Influence of excess pore pressures on the stability of the tunnel face 30. Tunneling through a refilled former sandpit 31. Comparative analysis between the support of the tunnel face with foam (EPB) or bentonite (slurry-shield) in the Dutch soft ground 32. Three-dimensional finite element simultations of hydroshield tunneling 33. Design optimization of support system for swelling and squeezing zone in Gavoshan water conveyance tunnel 34. Active earth pressure control with foam 35. On modelling of masonry buildings response in Dutch soft-ground tunnelling 36. Towards the development of a self-compensating TBM for reducing ground settlement 37. Dynamic soil modelling for a settlement-driven TBM control system 38. Seismics for tunnelling applications in soft soil: Adapted focusing techniques 39. Application of trend line analysis for assessing change of ground condition ahead of tunnel face 40. High-frequency shear-wave reflections to monitor lateral variations in soil, supplementing downhole geotechnical tests 41. Numerical evaluation of environmental impact on surrounding groundwater by tunnel excavation 42. Research of observational method on the groundwater in the mountain tunnels and 3-D seepage analysis 43. Innovative design aspects of the ITM TBM 44. Real time thickness control of continuous extruded concrete lining (ECL) during production 45. Retrospective of tunnelling projects in the Netherlands, 1993–2003, ten years of challenges 46. Evaluation of extensive strain measurements in the Botlek Railway Tunnel 47. Full scale tests on a segmented tunnel lining 48. The Green Heart tunnel flat joint performance of the lining 49. Improved grout pressure model for tunnel linings in soft soil conditions 50. Design philosophy of tunnel linings involving the assembling stage 51. Confinement efficiency concept in soft ground bored tunnels 52. The use of steel fibers as splitting reinforcement in tunnel linings 53. Development of wrapping method for watertight shield tunnel construction 54. Development of dynamic grouting technique for the ground improvement 55. Dynamic aspect at the Botlek rail tunnel 56. Dynamic loading induced settlement of the “Groene Hart” Tunnel 57. Sophiaspoortunnel – tunnel technique and the development of the continuous advance method 58. New development of hard rock TBMs excavation monitoring and control system and true reflective tomography 59. An analysis tool for real-time quantification of stress states in shotcrete tunnel linings 60. Elasto-plastic analysis for the effect of longitudinal uneven settlement on shield tunnel 61. Virtual Reality (VR) – based Intelligent tunneling information system 62. Evaluation of an innovative tunneling method using TBM pilot tunnels 63. Reliability of leakage detection systems in underground constructions 64. Comparison between two tunnel face stability calculation methods 65. Behaviour of electrical cables during fire in tunnels 66. Influence of foundation settlement on façade behaviour at Amsterdam Central Station 67. Review of the tensile strain method for predicting building damage due to ground movements 68. Monitoring the deformation behaviour of buildings in Amsterdam 69. Geotechnical centrifuge tests to predict the loading conditions on a bored tunnel due to consolidation settlements 70. Grout pressure measurements during tunnelling 71. Maximum pressures in tunnelling limited by hydraulic fractures 72. Monitoring of world’s largest TBM at the Green Heart tunnel 73. Effect of soil consolidation on soil-lining interaction in tunnels 74. Frost heave tests on Dutch soils 75. High performance TBM technology and logistics Design aspects and risk analysis 76. A new metro tunnel under Amsterdam Central Station with known risks 77. The relationship of risk mitigation to management and probable cost 78. Risk management for the Betuweroute shield driven tunnels 79. The prediction of ground movements associated with the construction of deep station boxes 80. Design standard for railway shotcrete tunnels in urban area in Japan 81. A case study on the design of two cross tunnels: Numerical analysis and reinforcement 82. Design aspects and risk analyses at the example of the planning for Randstad Rail in Rotterdam 83. A GIS-based tunnelling-induced building/utility damage assessment system – development 84. Design standard for railway shield tunnels in Japan 85. Copenhagen Metro, segmental tunnel lining durability strategy and the supervision thereof 86. Monitoring safety in design and construct: The HSL-South case study 87. 3D groundwater flow analysis alround a tunnel using discontinuity network of rock mass 88. Geomechanical behaviour of frozen soil and AGF safe constraint method 89. The use of models in the design of deep underground metro stations in Amsterdam 90. Starting shaft of the Sophia railway tunnel 91. Design of parallel mutually influencing undersea and under-river tunnel linings Contract management and financing 92. Realisation of new tunnelling methods for the METRO Amsterdam Noord/Zuidlijn – the contractors point of view 93. Public private partnership Sijtwende: Turning political deadlock into public benefit 94. Writing contracts to ensure safety in international tunnelling 95. Allocation of soil risks in Dutch design and construct contracts 96. The Westerscheldetunnel: Experience with financing and design and build 97. Accelerating to success – a target cost solution at CERN 98. Financing of underground infrastructure