First Published in 1996. Teaching approaches for pupils with learning difficulties have often emphasized the presentation and repetition of easily manageable tasks rather than exploration, learning through mistakes and reflection. However, there is encouraging evidence that such pupils may be helped to develop effective learning approaches with marked improvements in their academic performance and self-concept. The importance of the teacher's role in facilitating pupils' reflective activity cannot be overstated. This book locates reflective experiences within classroom interaction and discusses a variety of ways in which teachers can foster reflection. These include their classroom talk, challenging activities, and the creation of an ethos where expectations are high and pupils' thinking and self-awareness are shown to be valued. Most, but not all, of the classroom research reported here was conducted in special schools for pupils with moderate learning difficulties, but the findings have implications for teachers of a wide range of pupils, in both â€˜special' and â€˜ordinary' schools. The hope is that they will be stimulated to incorporate some of the ideas in this book into their own practice.
Preface -- A Framework for Reflection -- Reflection and Effective Learning -- The Research Focus: Reflection within the Classroom -- The Locus of Reflection: Classroom Interaction -- The Locus of Reflection: Pupils’ Classroom Experiences -- Reflective Episodes and their Context -- Behind and Beyond Reflective Classrooms -- Along the Continuum: Mainstream Contexts for Reflection -- Classrooms for Reflection