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# Reliability, Maintainability, and Safety for Engineers

By

## B.S. Dhillon

ISBN 9780367352653
Published April 15, 2020 by CRC Press
218 Pages 39 B/W Illustrations

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## Book Description

To meet the needs of today, engineered products and systems are an important element of the world economy, and each year billions of dollars are spent to develop, manufacture, operate, and maintain various types of products and systems around the globe.

This book integrates and combines three of those topics to meet today’s needs for the engineers working in these fields. This book provides a single volume that considers reliability, maintainability, and safety when designing new products and systems. Examples along with their solutions are placed at the end of each chapter to test readers’ comprehension. The book is written in a manner that readers do not need any previous knowledge of the subject, and many references are provided.

This book is also useful to many people, including design engineers, system engineers, reliability specialists, safety professionals, maintainability engineers, engineering administrators, graduate and senior undergraduate students, researchers, and instructors.

CHAPTER 1: Introduction

1.1 Background

1.2 Reliability, Maintainability, and Safety Facts, Figures, and Examples

1.3 Terms and Definitions

1.4 Useful Sources for Obtaining Information on Reliability, Maintainability, and Safety

1.5 Scope of the Book

1.6 Problems

1.7 References

CHAPTER 2: Reliability, Maintainability, and Safety Mathematics

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Arithmetic Mean and Mean Deviation

2.3 Boolean Algebra Laws

2.4 Probability Definition and Properties

2.5 Mathematical Definitions

2.6 Probability Distributions

2.7 Solving First Order Differential Equations with Laplace Transforms

2.8 Problems

2.9 References

CHAPTER 3: Reliability, Maintainability, and Safety Basics

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Bathtub Hazard Rate Curve

3.3 General Reliability Formulas

3.4 Reliability Networks

3.5 The Importance, Purpose, and Results of Maintainability Efforts

3.6 Maintainability versus Reliability

3.7 Maintainability Functions

3.8 The Role of Engineers in Regard to Safety

3.9 Safety Management Principles and Organization Tasks for Product Safety

3.10 Product Hazard Classifications

3.11 Accident Causation Theories

3.12 Problems

3.13 References

CHAPTER 4: Methods for Performing Reliability, Maintainability, Safety Analysis

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Fault Tree Analysis (FTA)

4.3 Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA)

4.4 Markov Method

4.5 Cause and Effect Diagram

4.6 Probability Tree Analysis

4.7 Hazard and Operability Analysis (HAZOP)

4.8 Technique of Operations Review (TOR)

4.9 Job Safety Analysis

4.10 Interface Safety Analysis (ISA)

4.11 Problems

4.12 References

CHAPTER 5: Reliability Management

5.1 Introduction

5.2 General Management Reliability Program Responsibilities and Guiding Force Related Facts for the General Management for an Effective Reliability Program

5.3 A Procedure for Developing Reliability Goals and Useful Guidelines for Developing Reliability Programs

5.4 Reliability and Maintainability Management-Related Tasks in the Product Life Cycle

5.5 Reliability Management Documents and Tools

5.6 Reliability Engineering Department Responsibilities and a Reliability Engineer’s Tasks

5.7 Pitfalls in Reliability Program Management and Useful Rules for Reliability Professionals

5.8 Problems

5.9 References

CHAPTER 6: Human and Mechanical Reliability

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Human Error Occurrence Facts and Figures

6.3 Human Error Classifications and Causes

6.4 Human Stress-Performance Effectiveness and Stress Factors

6.5 Human Performance Reliability in Continuous Time and Mean Time to Human Error (MTTHE) Measure

6.6 Human Reliability Analysis Methods

6.7 Mechanical Failure Modes and General Causes

6.8 Safety Factors and Safety Margin

6.9 Stress-Strength Interference Theory Modeling

6.10 Failure Rate Models

6.11 Problems

6.12 References

CHAPTER 7: Reliability Testing and Growth

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Reliability Test Classifications

7.3 Success Testing

7.4 Accelerated Life Testing

7.5 Confidence Interval Estimates for Mean Time Between Failures

7.6 Reliability Growth Program and Reliability Growth Process Evaluation Approaches

7.7 Reliability Growth Models

7.8 Problems

7.9 References

CHAPTER 8: Maintainability Management

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Maintainability Management Functions During the Product Life Cycle

8.3 Maintainability Organization Functions

8.4 Maintainability Program Plan

8.5 Maintainability Design Reviews

8.6 Maintainability Associated Personnel

8.7 Problems

8.8 References

CHAPTER 9: Human Factors in Maintainability

9.1 Introduction

9.2 General Human Behaviors

9.3 Human Body Measurements

9.4 Human Sensory Capabilities

9.5 Visual and Auditory Warning Devices in Maintenance Activities

9.6 Human Factors Formulas

9.7 Problems

9.8 References

CHAPTER 10: Maintainability Testing and Demonstration

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Maintainability Testing and Demonstration Planning and Control Requirements

10.3 Useful Checklist for Maintainability Demonstration Plans, Procedures, and Reports

10.4 Maintainability Test Approaches

10.5 Maintainability Testing Methods

10.6 Steps for Performing Maintainability Demonstrations and Evaluating the Results and Guidelines to Avoid Pitfalls in Maintainability Testing

10.7 Problems

10.8 References

CHAPTER 11: Safety Management

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Principles of Safety Management

11.3 Functions of Safety Department, Manager, and Engineer

11.4 Steps for Developing a Safety Program Plan and Managerial-Related Deficiencies Leading to Accidents

11.5 Product Safety Management Program and Organization Tasks

11.6 Safety Performance Measures and Drawbacks of the Standard Indexes

11.7 Problems

11.8 References

CHAPTER 12: Safety Costing

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Safety Cost –Related Facts, Figures, and Examples

12.3 Losses of a Company Due to an Accident Involving Its Product

12.4 Safety Cost Estimation Methods

12.5 Safety Cost Estimation Models

12.6 Safety Cost Performance Measurements Indexes

12.7 Problems

12.8 References

CHAPTER 13: Human Factors in Safety

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Job Stress

13.3 Worksite Analysis Program for Human Factors

13.4 Symptoms of Human Factors-Associated Problems in Organizations, Identification of Specific Human Factors-Associated Problems, and Useful Strategies for Solving Human Factors-Associated Problems

13.5 Useful Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Ergonomics Guidelines

13. 6 Human Factors-Related Safety Issues

13.7 Employee Training and Education

13.8 Problems

13.9 References

CHAPTER 14: Software and Robot Safety

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Software Hazard Causing Ways

14.3 Basic Software System Safety-Related Tasks and Software Quality Assurance Organization’s Role in Regard to Software Safety

14.4 Software Safety Assurance Program

14.5 Software Hazard Analysis Methods

14.6 Robot Safety Problems and Accident Types

14.7 Robot Hazard Causes

14.8 Safety Considerations in Robot Life Cycle

14.9 Robot Safeguard Approaches

14.10 Problems

14.11 References

...

## Author(s)

### Biography

Dr. B.S. Dhillon is a professor of Engineering Management in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Ottawa. He has served as a Chairman/Director of Mechanical Engineering Department/Engineering Management Program for over 10 years at the same institution. He is the founder of the probability distribution named Dhillon Distribution/Law/Model by statistical researchers in their publications around the world. He has published over 373 {(i.e., 220 (70 single authored + 150 co-authored) journal and 153 conference proceedings} articles on reliability engineering, maintainability, safety, engineering management, etc. He is or has been on the editorial boards of 12 international scientific journals. In addition, Dr. Dhillon has written 46 books on various aspects of health care, engineering management, design, reliability, safety, and quality published by Wiley (1981), Van Nostrand (1982), Butterworth (1983), Marcel Dekker (1984), Pergamon (1986), etc. His books are being used in over 100 countries and many of them are translated into languages such as German, Russian, Chinese, and Persian (Iranian). He has served as General Chairman of two international conferences on reliability and quality control held in Los Angeles and Paris in 1987. Prof. Dhillon has also served as a consultant to various organizations and bodies and has many years of experience in the industrial sector. At the University of Ottawa, he has been teaching reliability, quality, engineering management, design, and related areas and he has also lectured in over 50 countries, including keynote addresses at various international scientific conferences held in North America, Europe, Asia, and Africa. In March 2004, Dr. Dhillon was a distinguished speaker at the Conf./Workshop on Surgical Errors (sponsored by White House Health and Safety Committee and Pentagon), held at the Capitol Hill (One Constitution Avenue, Washington, D.C.). Professor Dhillon attended the University of Wales where he received a BS in electrical and electronic engineering and an MS in mechanical engineering. He received a Ph.D. in industrial engineering from the University of Windsor.