Religion and Politics in Contemporary Russia Beyond the Binary of Power and Authority
Based on extensive original research at the local level, this book explores the relationship between Russian Orthodoxy and politics in contemporary Russia. It reveals close personal links between politicians at the local, regional and national levels and their counterparts at the equivalent level in the Russian Orthodox Church – priests and monks, bishops and archbishops – who are extensively consulted about political decisions. It outlines a convergence of conservative ideology between politicians and clerics and also highlights that, despite working closely together, there are nevertheless many tensions. The book examines in detail particular areas of cooperation and tension: reform to religious education and a growing emphasis on traditional moral values, the restitution of former church property and the introduction of new festive days. Overall, the book concludes that there is much uncertainty, ambiguity and great local variation.
1. Introduction: Beyond the Binary of Power and Authority: Religion and Politics in Contemporary Russia 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Russian Orthodoxy, Religious Beliefs and Practices 1.3 Theoretical Outline 1.3.1 Secularization, Secularism and Multiple Secularities 1.3.2 Politics and Religion vs. State and Church 1.3.3 Caesaropapism and Harmony (symphonia) 1.3.4 Entangled Authorities 1.4 The Field Sites 1.5 Methodology 1.6 Overview of the Book 1.6.1 Patriotism, Orthodox Religion and Education 1.6.2 A Post-Socialist Palimpsest: On the Restitution of Property and the Creation of ‘Authentic’ Landscapes 1.6.3 The Newly-Established Festive Day of Family, Love and Faithfulness and the Saints Peter and Fevroniia 1.6.4 Nationalism, Conservatism and Militarism in Post-Soviet Russian Orthodoxy and Politics 2. The Relation between Russian Orthodoxy and Politics in Russian History 2.1 The Introduction of Orthodox Religion in the Early Rus’ 2.2 Russian Orthodoxy and Politics after the End of the Riurikid Dynasty until the October Revolution 2.3 The End of the Russian Empire and the Socialist Era 2.4 The Re-Emergence of Religion in the Public Sphere, the End of the Soviet Union and the Post-Socialist Era 3. Russian Orthodoxy, Religious Education and the Growing Importance of Patriotism 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Religious and Moral Education in Russia 3.3 Religious Education in State-Schools in the Post-Soviet Period 3.4 Fundamentals of Orthodox Culture (FOC) 3.4.1 FOC in Practice Through the Eyes of Those Who Support It 3.4.2 FOC in Practice Through the Eyes of Those Who Oppose It 3.4.3 An Orthodox Critique of the FOC Module 3.5 Religious Education in Private Orthodox Schools 3.6 Religious Education and Notions of Patriotism 3.7 Conclusion 4. A Post-Socialist Palimpsest: On the Restitution of Property and the Making of ‘Authentic’ Landscapes in Contemporary Russia 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Property: Anthropological and Theoretical Perspectives 4.3 The History of the Property of the Russian Orthodox Church 4.4 The Return of Church Buildings 4.5 Problems Related to the Return of Church Buildings 4.6 Ethnographic Examples of Property Restitution 4.6.1 The Monastery in Bogoliubovo 4.6.2 The Parish Community in Bogoliubovo 4.6.3 The Planetarium in Vladimir 4.7 Conclusion 5. The Newly-Established Festive Day of Family, Love and Faithfulness and the Saints Peter and Fevroniia 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Festive Days and Public Religion 5.3 The History of the Saints Peter and Fevroniia 5.4 Discourses and Understandings 5.4.1 The Demographic Threat and a Need for State Intervention 5.4.2 Single Motherhood and Gender Aspects 5.4.3 Genuinely Russian Love and Anti-Westernism 5.4.4 Festive Days as State Interventions and Related Critique 5.5 The Emergence of Personal and Institutional Entanglements 5.6 Conclusion 6. Nationalism, Conservatism and Militarism in Post-Soviet Russian Orthodoxy and Politics 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Nationalism and Identity
6.3 The Rise of Fundamentalism and Illiberal Conservatism in Contemporary Russia 6.3.1 The Growing Importance of Traditional Moral Values 6.3.2 Sinful Production 6.4 Religious Patriotism and a Growing Militarism 6.4.1 The Re-Emergence of Cossack Groups 6.4.2 Celebration of the End of the ‘Great Patriotic War’ in Vladimir 6.4. Military-Patriotic Education and the ‘Day of Mercy’ 6.5 Conclusion 7. Orthodox Religion and Politics in Contemporary Russia: Entangled Authorities in the Making