Reluctance Electric Machines: Design and Control, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Reluctance Electric Machines

Design and Control, 1st Edition

By Ion Boldea, Lucian Tutelea

CRC Press

416 pages

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pub: 2018-08-10
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Electric energy is arguably a key agent for our material prosperity. With the notable exception of photovoltaic generators, electric generators are exclusively used to produce electric energy from mechanical energy. More than 60% of all electric energy is used in electric motors for useful mechanical work in various industries. This book presents the modeling, performance, design, and control of reluctance synchronous and flux-modulation machines developed for higher efficiency and lower cost. It covers one- and three-phase reluctance synchronous motors in line-start applications and various reluctance flux-modulation motors in pulse width modulation converter-fed variable speed drives.


  • Presents basic and up-to-date knowledge about the topologies, modeling, performance, design, and control of reluctance synchronous machines.
  • Includes information on recently introduced reluctance flux-modulation electric machines (switched- flux, flux-reversal, Vernier, transverse flux, claw pole, magnetic-geared dual-rotor, brushless doubly fed, etc.).
  • Features numerous examples and case studies throughout.
  • Provides a comprehensive overview of all reluctance electric machines.


"Reluctance motor drives start to find their rightful place in the adjustable speed motor drives. This is in part due to their lower cost, ease of cooling, higher fault tolerance, and suitability for use under harsh operating and ambient condition. The book by Prof . Boldea and Prof. Tutelea offers a physically insightful approach to electromechanical energy conversion in this family of electric machines. Authors provide an in depth explanation of the electromagnetic performance, interdependence between control and magnetic design and fundamentals of design. I found this book to be a great resource for practicing engineers in industry and researchers in the academia. There is an outstanding balance between the theoretical contents and engineering aspects of design and control throughout the manuscript which makes this book an excellent choice for a graduate course in academic institutions or series of short courses for practicing engineers in the industry. I would like to strongly recommend this book for researchers and practitioners in the area of electric machines."

-Babak Fahimi, Distinguished Chair of Engineering at University of Texas at Dallas, USA

"I stress that this attractive book is very useful for students of electrical, mechanical, and mechatronics as well as for practicing engineers interested in the design and optimization of electrical machines and drive systems."

IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine, March 2019 Issue

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Reluctance Electric Machines: An Introduction

1.1 Electric Machines: Why and Where?

1.2 Electric Machine (and Drive) Principles and Topologies

1.3 Reluctance Electric Machine Principles

1.4 Reluctance Electric Machine Classifications

1.5 Flux-Modulation Reluctance Electric Machines

1.6 Summary


Chapter 2 Line-Start Three-Phase Reluctance Synchronous Machines: Modeling, Performance, and Design

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Three-Phase Line-Start Reluctance Synchronous Machines:

Topologies, Field Distribution, and Circuit Parameters

2.3 Synchronous Steady State by the Circuit Model

2.4 Asynchronous Torque Components

2.5 Electromagnetic Design Issues

2.6 Testing for Performance and Parameters

2.7 Summary


Chapter 3 Phase-Source Line-Start Cage Rotor Permanent Magnet–Reluctance Synchronous Machines: Modeling, Performance and Design

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Equivalent Magnetic Circuit Model for Saturated Magnetization

Inductances Ldm, Lqm

3.3 The Electric Circuit Model

3.4 Asynchronous Mode Circuit Model

3.5 Permanent Magnet Average Braking Torque

3.6 Steady State Synchronous Performance/Sample Results

3.7 The dq Model for Transients

3.8 Optimal Design Methodology by a Case Study

3.9 Finite-Element Modeling Validation

3.10 Parameter Estimation and Segregation of Losses in Single-Phase Capacitor Permanent Magnet-Reluctance Synchronous Machines by Tests

3.11 Summary


Chapter 4 Three-Phase Variable-Speed Reluctance Synchronous Motors: Modeling, Performance, and Design

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Analytical Field Distribution and Ldm(Id), Lqm(Iq) Inductance Calculation

4.3 The Axially Laminated Anisotropic–Rotor

4.4 Tooth-Wound Coil Windings in Reluctance Synchronous Motors

4.5 Finite-Element Approach to Field Distribution, Torque, Inductances, and Core Losses

4.6 The Circuit dq (Space Phasor) Model and Steady State Performance

4.7 Design Methodologies by Case Studies

4.8 Multipolar Ferrite-Permanent Magnet Reluctance Synchronous Machine Design

4.9 Improving Power Factor and Constant Power Speed Range by Permanent Magnet Assistance in Reluctance Synchronous Machines

4.10 Reluctance Synchronous Machine and Permanent Magnet-Reluctance Synchronous Machine Optimal Design Based on Finite-Element Method Only

4.11 Summary


Chapter 5 Control of Three-Phase Reluctance Synchronous Machine and Permanent Magnet–Reluctance Synchronous Machine Drives

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Performance Indexes of Variable-Speed Drives

5.3 Reluctance Synchronous Machine and Permanent Magnet–Reluctance

Synchronous Machine Control Principles

5.4 Field-Oriented Control Principles

5.5 Direct Torque and Flux Control

5.6 Field-Oriented Control and Direct Torque and Flux Control of Permanent Magnet–Reluctance Synchronous Machines for Wide Constant Power Speed Range

5.7 Encoderless Field-Oriented Control of Reluctance Synchronous Machines

5.8 Active Flux–Based Model Encoderless Control of Reluctance Synchronous Machines

5.9 A Wide Speed Range Encoderless Control of Permanent Magnet–Reluctance Synchronous Machines

5.10 V/F with Stabilizing Loop Control of Permanent Magnet–Reluctance Synchronous Machine

5.11 Summary


Chapter 6 Claw Pole and Homopolar Synchronous Motors: Modeling, Design, and Control

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Claw Pole–Synchronous Motors: Principles and Topologies

6.3 Claw Pole–Synchronous Motors Modeling

6.4 Claw Pole–Synchronous Motors: The dq Circuit Model for Steady State and Transients

6.5 Optimal Design of Claw Pole–Synchronous Motors

6.6 Optimal Design of a Permanent Magnet–Excited Claw Pole–Synchronous Motor: A Case Study

6.7 Claw Pole–Synchronous Motor Large Power Design Example 6.2 (3 MW, 75 rpm)

6.8 Control of Claw Pole–Synchronous Motors for Variable Speed Drives

6.9 The Homopolar–Synchronous Motor

6.10 Summary


Chapter 7 Brushless Direct Current–Multiple Phase Reluctance Motor Modeling, Control, and Design

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Torque Density and Loss Comparisons with Induction Motors

7.3 Control Principles

7.4 Finite-Element Model–Based Characterization versus Tests via a Case Study

7.5 Nonlinear Magnetic Equivalent Circuit Modeling by a Case Study

7.6 Circuit Model and Control

7.7 Optimal Design Methodology and Code with a Case Study

7.8 Summary


Chapter 8 Brushless Doubly-Fed Reluctance Machine Drives

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Phase Coordinate and dq Model

8.3 Magnetic Equivalent Circuit Modeling with Finite-Element Model Validation

8.4 Control of Brushless Doubly-Fed Reluctance Machines

8.5 Practical Design Issues

8.6 Summary


Chapter 9 Switched Flux–Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Analysis, Design, and Control

9.1 Introduction

9.2 The Nature of Switched Flux–Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

9.3 A Comparison between Switched Flux–Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors and Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

9.4 E-Core Hybrid Excited Switched Flux–Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

9.5 Switched Flux–Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors with Memory AlNiCo Assistance for Variable Flux

9.6 Partitioned Stator Switched Flux–Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

9.7 Circuit dq Model and Control of Switched Flux–Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

9.8 Summary


Chapter 10 Flux-Reversal Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Technical Theory via Preliminary Design Case Study

10.3 Finite-Element Model Geometry

10.4 Comparison between Flux-Reversal Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines and Surface Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

10.5 Three Phase Flux-Reversal Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines with Rotor Permanent Magnets

10.6 One-Phase Flux-Reversal Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine

10.7 Summary


Chapter 11 Vernier PM Machines

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Preliminary Design Methodology through Case Study

11.3 Hard-Learned Lessons from Finite-Element Method Analysis

of Vernier Permanent Magnet Machines

11.4 Vernier Permanent Magnet Machine Control Issues

11.5 Vernier Permanent Magnet Machine Optimal Design Issues

11.6 Combined Vernier and Flux-Reversal Permanent Magnet Machines

11.7 Summary


Chapter 12 Transverse Flux Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Analysis, Optimal Design, and Control

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Preliminary Nonlinear Analytical Design Methodology

12.3 Magnetic Equivalent Circuit Method Modeling

12.4 Optimal Design via a Case Study

12.5 Finite-Element Model Characterization of Transverse Flux

Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

12.6 Control Issues

12.7 Summary


Chapter 13 Magnetic-Geared Dual-Rotor Reluctance Electric Machines: Topologies, Analysis, Performance

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Dual-Rotor Interior Stator Magnetic-Geared Reluctance Electric Machines

13.3 Brushless Dual-Rotor Dual-Electric Part Magnetic-Geared Reluctance Electric Machines

13.4 Summary


Chapter 14 Direct Current + Alternating Current Stator Doubly Salient Electric Machines: Analysis, Design, and Performance

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Two-Slot-Span Coil Stator Direct Current + Alternating Current Winding Doubly Salient Machines

14.3 12/10 Direct Current + Alternating Current Double Salient Machine with Tooth-Wound Direct Current and Alternating Current Coils on Stator

14.4 The Direct Current + Alternating Current Stator Switched Reluctance Machine

14.5 Summary


About the Authors

Professor Ion G. Boldea is a Full Professor of Electrical Engineering at the University Politechnica of Timisoara, Romania. He has spent approximately 5 years as Visiting Professor of Electrical Engineering in both Kentucky and Oregon, USA since 1973, when he was a Senior Fullbright Scholar for 10 months. He was also a Visiting Professor in the UK at UMIST and Glasgow University. He is a full member of the Romanian Academy of Technical Sciences, a full member of the European Academy of Sciences and Arts of Salzburg, Austria, and a full member of the Romanian Academy. He has delivered IEEE-IAS Distinguished Lectures since 2008. He has given keynote speeches, tutorial courses, intensive courses, technical consulting in the USA, South America, E.U, South Korea, and China based on his numerous books and IEEE Trans. and Conference papers over the last 45 years in the field of rotating and linear electric machines and drives for renewable energy, vehicular, industrial, and residential applications. Professor Boldea is a Life Fellow of IEEE. He won the IEEE 2015 Nikola Tesla Award for "contributions to the design and control of rotating and linear electric machines for industry applications."

Professor Lucian N. Tutelea (M’07) received the B.S. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the Politehnica University Timisoara, Timisoara, Romania, in 1989 and 1997, respectively. He was a Visiting Researcher with the Institute of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Denmark, in 1997, 1999, 2000, and 2006, as well as the Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, South Korea, in 2004. He is currently a Professor with the Department of Electric Engineering, Politehnica University Timisoara. His main research interests include design, modeling, and control of electric machines and drives. Professor Tutelea published more than 80 papers indexed IEEE Xplore or in Web of Science with more than 400 citations.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / General
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Power Resources / Electrical