Remaking the Readymade: Duchamp, Man Ray, and the Conundrum of the Replica, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Remaking the Readymade

Duchamp, Man Ray, and the Conundrum of the Replica, 1st Edition

By Adina Kamien-Kazhdan


378 pages | 135 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2018-05-09
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Replication and originality are central concepts in the artistic oeuvres of Marcel Duchamp and Man Ray. Remaking the Readymade reveals the underlying and previously unexplored processes and rationales for the collaboration between Duchamp, Man Ray, and Arturo Schwarz on the replication of readymades and objects.

The 1964 editioned replicas of the readymades sent shock waves through the art world. Even though the replicas undermined ideas of authorship and problematized the notion of identity and the artist, they paradoxically shared in the aura of the originals, becoming stand-ins for the readymades. Scholar-poet-dealer Arturo Schwarz played a crucial role, opening the door to joint or alternate authorship—an outstanding relationship between artist and dealer. By unearthing previously unpublished correspondence and documentary materials and combining this material with newly conducted exclusive interviews with key participants, Remaking the Readymade details heretofore unrevealed aspects of the technical processes involved in the (re)creation of iconic, long-lost Dada objects.

Launched on the heels of the centenary of Duchamp’s Fountain, this new analysis intensifies and complicates our understanding of Duchamp and Man Ray’ initial conceptions, and raises questions about replication and authorship that will stimulate significant debate about the legacy of the artists, the continuing significance of their works, and the meaning of terms such as creativity, originality, and value in the formation of art.


"Drawing on previously unpublished correspondence, documentary materials and new interviews, this compelling and timely volume examines the collaborative production and meaning of editioned replicas and their impact on notions of originality, authenticity and authorship. A must read for understanding the creative legacy of the ready-mades!"

—Dalia Judovitz, author of Drawing on Art: Duchamp and Company

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

List of Illustrations



PART I Replication in the 20th Century and the Galleria Schwarz

Chapter 1 Replication: Motivations, Terms, and Issues

Replication: Terms and Definitions

Replication: Why and When?

Multiples of the 1950s and 1960s: New Initiatives of Artists and Dealers

The Replica's Aura: Legal and Theoretical Questions

Chapter 2 Galleria Schwarz

Arturo Schwarz: From Alexandria to Milan

The Libreria-Galleria Schwarz

Views on Dada and Surrealism

Schwarz, Breton, and Trotsky

Judaism, Kabbalah, and Alchemy

Collection and Donation

PART II Replication in the Oeuvre of Duchamp and Man Ray

Chapter 3 Duchamp: "Not an Original in the Conventional Sense"

Duchamp and the Readymade

Duchamp and Replication

Duchamp Replicators 1950-1966

Chapter 4 Man Ray: Objects to Multiples

Multiform Man Ray

Exhibitions and Reputation

"Objects of My Affection"

Duchamp-Man Ray Creative Exchange

Replication of Man Ray’s Objects Pre-Schwarz

PART II Commissioning and Making of the Editioned Replicas

Chapter 5 Mirrorical Return: Marcel Duchamp's Editioned Readymades

Arturo Schwarz: The Complete Works of Marcel Duchamp

Initial Joint Projects: The Erotic Objects

Exhibitions at Galleria Schwarz and Commissioning of Replicas

Replication Process

Case by Case Analysis of the 1964-65 Editions

Chapter 6 The "Indestructible" Man Ray

Man Ray and Schwarz: The Rigour of Imagination

Exhibitions at Galleria Schwarz and Commissioning of Replicas

Replication Process: Case by Case

Other Editors of Man Ray’s Objects

Chapter 7 Reception of the Editioned Replicas

Duchamp: The Value of the Readymade and its Replicas

Critical Reception of the 1964 Editions

Impact on Artists and Scholarship

Art Market History and Museum Purchasing Policies



I Unpublished Correspondence

II Interviews

III General

IV Publications by Arturo Schwarz

AppendixA Marcel Duchamp – original to replica tables

B Man Ray – original to replica tables

About the Author

Adina Kamien-Kazhdan, PhD, is David Rockefeller Senior Curator, The Stella Fischbach Department of Modern Art at The Israel Museum, Jerusalem.

About the Series

Studies in Surrealism

Studies in Surrealism
With scholarly interest in Surrealism greater than ever, the Studies in Surrealism series serves as a forum for key areas of Surrealist inquiry today. This series extends the ongoing academic and popular interest in Surrealism, evident in recent studies that have rethought established areas of Surrealist activity and engagement, including those of politics, the object, photography, crime, and modern physics. Expanding and adding various lines of inquiry, books in the series examine Surrealism's intersections with philosophical, social, artistic, and literary themes. Potential subjects to be examined in the context of Surrealism include but are not limited to: nature; queer studies; humor and play; science; theory in the 1950s and 1960s; the New Novel; Surrealist activities beyond Paris. Proposals are welcomed for both monographs and essay collections dealing with the above subjects or with discussions of Surrealism in other aspects and genres. Monographic writings on artists and writers who have been generally overlooked by English-language scholarship (for instance, Victor Brauner, Toyen, Jorge Camacho) would also fall within the scope of this series.

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
ART / Conceptual
ART / History / General
ART / European
ART / History / Modern (late 19th Century to 1945)
HISTORY / Modern / 20th Century
PHILOSOPHY / Aesthetics