This new work describes the state-of-the-art of remedial technologies for petroleum contaminated soils and impacted ground water-13 feasible methods and their basic elements, along with discussion of the factors to consider when selecting the method(s) to use-and their implementation. It presents a thorough description and evaluation of each available technology for remediating soil and groundwater containing petroleum products released by underground storage tank leaks and spills. State remedial action practices are discussed.
INTRODUCTION. Purpose and Scope. Format, Content, and Approach. SUMMARY of REMEDIAL TECHNOLOGIES. Applicable Remedial Technologies. Environmental Fate of Hydrocarbon Constituents. Exposure Pathways. Relative Costs for Applicable Technologies. State Practices for Remedial Actions. IN SITU TECHNOLOGIES. In Situ Volatilization (ISV). In Situ Biodegradation. In Situ Leaching and Chemical Reaction. In Situ Vitrification. In Situ Passive Remediation. In Situ Isolation/Containment. NON--IN SITU TECHNOLOGIES. Land Treatment. Thermal Treatment. Asphalt Incorporation. Solidification/Stabilization. Groundwater Extraction and Treatment. Chemical Extraction. Excavation. EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES. REFERENCES. INDEX.