Remediation Manual for Contaminated Sites (Hardback) book cover

Remediation Manual for Contaminated Sites

By David L. Russell

© 2012 – CRC Press

256 pages | 45 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9781439836224
pub: 2011-10-06
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pub: 2011-10-06
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To ask the right question, one needs to have some idea of what the answer might be. So it is with remediation. There is no such thing as too much information when it comes to characterizing a site, as information can aid in selecting the best remediation options. Unfortunately, the collection of data for making an informed decision is often costly, forcing professionals to make decisions on incomplete data. The lack of accurate data can also lead to the wrong remediation method selections, unwanted surprises, and extra expense.

Based on the author’s more than 40 years of experience working on environmental projects, Remediation Manual for Contaminated Sites provides a practical guide to environmental remediation and cleanups. It presents a broad overview of the environmental remediation process, distilled into what one needs to know to evaluate a specific challenge or solve a remediation problem. The text offers guidance on tasks that range from managing consultants and contractors to gathering data, selecting a suitable remediation technology, and calculating remediation costs.

The book includes remediation strategies for a variety of contaminants and examines a wide range of technologies for the remediation of water and soil, including excavation, wells, drainage, soil venting, vapor stripping, incineration, bioremediation, containment, solidification, vitrification, and phytoremediation. Written as a down-to-earth reference for professionals faced with the challenges of remediating a contaminated site, this book is also useful as a primer for students and those new to the field. It includes numerous figures, photographs, tables, and helpful checklists.

Table of Contents

Introduction and Overview


Regulatory Framework


Safe Drinking Water Act


Underground Injection Control Program

Other Water Regulations

Air Regulations

Construction and Operating Permits

Fire, Health, and Safety Regulations

Multimedia Problems

Cleanup Strategies

Corrective Action Plans

Management of the Consultant or Remediation Contractor

Contractor Management

Time and Material Contracts

Fixed-Price Contracts

Specifics of Initial Exploration

Specifics of Phase II Investigation

Remediation Design and Construction

Cleanup Alternatives and Systems


Definitions of Soil and Groundwater Remediation Systems

Soil Treatment

Groundwater Treatment

Summary of Treatment Options

Data Requirements


General Site Information

Site Exploration Program

Initial Exploration

NRCS Classification System

Unified Soil Classification System

Chemical Analyses

Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon and Organic Carbon Analyses

Soil–Mineral Balance

Other Organics

Inorganic Contaminants

Water Quality

Measurement Accuracy and Well Sampling

Nonwell Subsurface Exploration Techniques

Well-Drilling Techniques

Core Samples

Alternatives to Core Sampling Programs

Hydrogeologic Information

Slug Tests

Pumping Tests

Soil Vapor Stripping

Bioremediation Data Requirements

Disposal and Incinerator Data Requirements

Summary of Data Requirements

Remedial Options


Associated Problems and Challenges


Depths of Excavation

Nuisance Problems


Rock Excavation


Trenches and Drains

Wells and Remediation

Drilling Muds and Well Development

Well Types

Well Packings and Well Screens

Hydrogeologic Modeling

Pumping Systems

Total Fluid Pumping versus Recovery Pumping

Water Treatment Systems

Water Chemistry

Physical Separations


Strippers and Aerators

Carbon Adsorption

Biological Treatment

The Biological Treatment Universe


Soil Venting

Vapor Extraction Systems Ancillary Equipment



In Situ Bioremediation

Preliminary Considerations

Aeration Systems

Nutrient Additions

Site Restoration and Monitoring of Bioremediation

Taking the Measure of Bioremediation

Solidification and Containment




Landfilling and Brownfields



Summary of Remediation Technologies

Further Readings

Costs of Remedial Activities


Information Sources


Cost Factors: Discussion

OSHA Compliance

Exploration Services

Analytical Costs

Site Investigation Costs

Design, Construction, and Maintenance Costs for Remedial Activities

Specific Cost Factors

Biological Remediation

Biological Treatment Basics

Cellular Chemistry

Aerobic versus Anaerobic Reactions

Combined Cometabolic Stripping


Exploration Notes and Techniques

Direct Subsurface Investigation

Obtaining the Core Sample

Horizontal Well Exploration

Indirect Subsurface Investigation

Ground Penetrating Radar

Other Electromagnetic Surveys

Resistivity Exploration

Some Computer Modeling Notes

Other Indirect Survey Techniques

Landfills, Brownfields, Barrier Walls, and Bottom Sealing


Modern Landfill Design

Landfill Excavation and Drilling Tips


Barrier Walls and Side Sealing

Sheet Piling

Slurries and Trenching Methods

Bottom Sealing

Modeling Notes



About the Author

David L. Russell is a professional engineer, writer, lecturer, and environmental professional. He has written three technical books on environmental topics, and countless articles and editorials. He has lectured and worked in such diverse places as the Ukraine, Ghana, Ecuador, Romania, Hungary, Saudi Arabia, Mexico, Poland, and the United Arab Emirates. His company, Global Environmental Operations Inc., has performed a variety of interesting and challenging projects, including researching solutions to radium removal in coal mine waters, setting up treatment facilities for large remediation projects, and risk assessments. He lives and works in Lilburn, Georgia.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
LAW / Environmental
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / Ecology
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / Water Supply