Remediation Manual for Petroleum Contaminated Sites  book cover
1st Edition

Remediation Manual for Petroleum Contaminated Sites

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ISBN 9780877628767
Published November 23, 1992 by CRC Press
184 Pages

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Book Description

Based on proven investigation into cleanup techniques, the material in this manual gives engineers a working knowledge of the field and a basis for making key decisions during the cleanup process.

It is easy to get petroleum into the ground, but hard to get it back out again. The problem does not exist in the groundwater or the soil alone, but in a dynamic balance between the soil, water, and air in the soil. Gasoline and any of its volatile components can and do move between the soil, air and water, and they cost billions of dollars every year in contamination cleanup.

This new book provides the information needed for cost- and time-effective petroleum-contaminated site cleanup.
Originally developed as an oil company's training aid, this book discusses the hows and whys of site cleanup-geology, data gathering, cleanup alternatives, remediation costs, and manage-ment of consultants/contractors Plus the_book contains a criti-cal examination of the benefits and limitations of each type of remediation technology.

There is never only one way to clean up a particular site. The choice of the method of cleanup is one of the greatest factors affecting the cost. Another important cost factor is the level of cleanup required to satisfy the regulatory cleanup community. This new book will not only provide a fundamental under-standing of site remediation techniques but also the knowledge to make cost-effective, environmentally-sound choices during the remediation process.

Copies of this handy manual are available for immediate delivery. An order form follows the detailed table of contents on the reverse.

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 Introduction and Overview

1.1 Introduction
1.2 Regulatory Framework

1.2.2 Safe Drinking Water Act
1.2.3 RCRA
1.2.4 Underground Injection Control Program
1.2.5 Other Water Regulations
1.2.6 Air Regulations
1.2.7 Construction and Operating Permits
1.2.8 Fire, Health, and Safety Regulations

1.3 Multi-Media Problems
1.4 Cleanup Strategies
1.5 Corrective Action Plans (CAP)
1.6 Management of the Consultant/Remediation Contractor

1.6.1 Time and Material Contracts
1.6.2 Fixed Price Contracts
1.6.3 Contractor Management

1.7 Specifics of Initial Exploration
1.8 Specifics-Phase 2 Investigation
1.9 Remediation Design and Construction
1.10 Cleanup Alternatives and Systems

1.10.1 Introduction
1.10.2 Definitions for Soiland Groundwater Remediation Systems

1.11 Soil Treatment
1.12 Groundwater Treatment
1.13 Summary of Treatment Options

CHAPTER 2 Data Requirements

2.1 Introduction
2.2 General Site Information
2.3 Site Exploration Program
2.4 Initial Exploration

2.4.1 SCS Classification System
2.4.2 Unified Soil Classification System

2.5 Chemical Analyses

2.5.1 Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon and Organic Carbon Analyses
2.5.2 Soil Mineral Balance
2.5.3 Water Quality

2.6 Non-Well Subsurface Exploration Techniques
2.7 Well-Drilling Techniques

2.7.1 Core Samples

2.8 Hydrogeologic Information

2.8.1 Slug Tests
2.8.2 Pumping Tests
2.8.3 Soil Vapor Stripping

2.9 Bioremediation Data Requirements
2.10 Disposal and Incineration Data Requirements
2.11 Summary of Data Requirements

CHAPTER 3 Remedial Options

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Associated Problems and Challenges
3.3 Excavation

3.3.1 Depths of Excavation
3.3.2 Nuisance Problems
3.3.3 Groundwater
3.3.4 Rock Excavation
3.3.5 Backfilling

3.4 Trenches and Drains
3.5 Wells and Remediation

3.5.1 Drilling Muds and Well Development
3.5.2 Well Types
3.5.3 Well Screens and Well Packings
3.5.4 Hydro geologic Modeling

3.6 Pumping Systems

3.6.1 Total Fluid Pumping vs. Recovery Pumping

3.7 Water Treatment Systems

3.7.1 Water Chemistry
3.7.2 Physical Separations
3.7.3 Filtration
3.7.4 Strippers and Aerators
3.7.5 Carbon Adsorption
3.7.6 Biological Treatment

3.8 Incineration
3.9 Soil Venting

3.9.1 Vapor Extraction Systems-Ancillary Equipment

3.10 Bioremediation

3.10.1 Landfarming
3.10.2 In-situ Bioremediation
3.10.3 Preliminary Considerations
3.10.4 Aeration Systems
3.10.5 Nutrient Additions
3.10.6 Site Restoration and Monitoring of Bioremediation
3.10.7 Taking the Measure of Bioremediation

3.11 Solidification and Containment

3.11.1 Containment
3.11.2 Solidification
3.11.3 Vitrification

3.12 Summary of Remediation Technologies

CHAPTER 4 Costs of Remedial Activities

4.1 Introduction

4.1.1 Information Sources
4.1.2 Discussion

4.2 Cost Factors- Discussion

4.2.1 Exploration Services
4.2.2 Laboratory Costs
4.2.3 Site Investigation Costs
4.2.4 Design, Construction and Maintenance Costs for Remedial Activities

4.3 Specific Cost Factors

Appendix A Specific Pricing Information

Appendix B General Site Remediation Costs

Appendix C Soil Survey Map

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"Its plain-English style would be understood by most any oil marketer. ... The book cleverly organizes into two charts the various standard cleanup methods depending on types of soil and water conditions at your site. . . . Contains a shopping list of typical prices paid for various types of cleanup equipment."
-US. Oil Week