Resolving Human-Wildlife Conflicts: The Science of Wildlife Damage Management, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Resolving Human-Wildlife Conflicts

The Science of Wildlife Damage Management, 1st Edition

By Michael R. Conover, Michael R. Conover

CRC Press

440 pages | 100 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2001-08-29
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As more and more people crowd onto less and less land, incidences of human-wildlife conflicts will only increase. A comprehensive overview of this emerging field, Resolving Human-Wildlife Conflicts: The Science of Wildlife Damage Management discusses the issues facing wildlife managers and anyone else dealing with interactions between wildlife and humans. By defining the discipline of wildlife damage management, this book fills a void in the fields of wildlife management and ecology.

The director of the Jack H. Berryman Institute, the only academic institute devoted to wildlife damage management, author Michael Conover is the leader in this field. In this book, he stresses the inter-relatedness of wildlife damage management within the larger discipline of wildlife conservation and provides an extensive review of the scientific literature. He includes case-studies that document how an integrated approach to wildlife management can resolve wildlife-human conflicts.

Nowhere else will you find the authoritative coverage and depth of theoretical information available in Resolving Human-Wildlife Conflicts: The Science of Wildlife Damage Management. The combination of descriptive prose, historical details, and liberal use of informative sidebars add to its appeal as a textbook, while the organization and scope make it the ideal reference for professionals.

Table of Contents



Philosophies of Wildlife Management

What Positive Values Are Provided by Wildlife?

What Is Wildlife Damage Management?

Why Worry About Human-Wildlife Conflicts?

Contributions of Wildlife Damage Management to the Larger Field of Wildlife Management

Alternative Definitions for Wildlife Damage Management

What Is In a Name?

What Are the Necessary Ingredients for Damage by Wildlife?

The Role of Government in Wildlife Management

The Role of Government Wildlife Biologists


Prehistoric Wildlife Management

Wildlife Damage Management in the Ancient World

Wildlife Damage Management in Medieval Europe

Wildlife Management in Colonial America from 1620 to 1776

Wildlife Management in the U.S. from 1776 to 1880

Why the Closing of the Frontier and the Industrial Revolution Sparked a New Philosophy of Wildlife Management

Consequences of the World Wars and the Great Depression on Wildlife Management

Wildlife Management in Modern America

Wildlife Management in the 21st Century: What Now?

Threats to Human Safety

Why Do Animals Attack People?

How Often Are Humans Injured or Killed by Wildlife?


Bear Attacks

Shark Attacks

Alligator Attacks

Attacks by Wolves and Coyotes

Cougar Attacks

Attacks by Large Herbivores

Why Has There Been a Recent Increase in Wildlife Attacks on Humans in North America?

What Can Be Done to Reduce the Frequency of Wildlife Attacks on Humans?

Human Injuries and Fatalities from Ungulate-Automobile Collisions

Human Injuries and Fatalities from Bird-Aircraft Collisions


Bacterial Diseases

Viral Diseases

Fungal Disease


Economic Analysis of Wildlife Values

What Are the Sources of Economic Data about the Positive Values of Wildlife?

Why Is It Important to Have Accurate Economic Data about Losses from Wildlife Damage?

Measuring Wildlife Damage by Making a Direct Assessment of Losses

Assessing the Extent of Wildlife Damage by Surveying People

Lost Opportunity Costs

Economic Assessment of Wildlife Damage in the U.S. and Worldwide

Do High Levels of Wildlife Damage Mean that Wildlife Populations Are Too High?

Wildlife Damage to Agricultural Production in Other Parts of the World

Environmental Damage and Exotic Species

What Is An Exotic Species?

Impacts of Exotic Species on the Native Biota


Galapagos Islands



North America

Resolving Environmental Problems Caused by Exotic Animals

Can We Predict when an Exotic Species Will Cause Environmental Damage?

Which Sites Are Vulnerable to Exotic Species?

Developing an Integrated Program to Stop the Spread of Exotics

Lethal Control

Intrinsic Growth Rates of Wildlife Populations

What Effect Does Lethal Control have on a Wildlife Population's Birth and Mortality Rates?

What Effect Does Lethal Control have on a Wildlife Population's Immigration Rate?

Is There a Correlation between Wildlife Population Levels and Wildlife Damage?

How Do Values Provided by Wildlife Change as Their Populations Increase?

Should Lethal Techniques Be Directed at specific Individuals, Specific Subpopulations, or the Entire Population?

Are Lethal Methods Legal?

Are Lethal Methods Effective at Reducing Wildlife Damage?

Should Lethal Methods Be Used Ahead of Time to Prevent Wildlife Damage or Only After Damage has Begun?

Are Lethal Techniques Cost Effective?

Do Lethal Techniques Pose a Risk to Nontarget Species?

Are Lethal Techniques Humane and Socially Acceptable?

Common Methods Used in Lethal Control

Fertility Control

Normal Reproductive Function

Mechanical and Surgical Techniques to Reduce Fertility

Reducing Fertility by Disrupting Endocrine Regulation


Administering Fertility Drugs to Animals

Controlling the Release of an Antifertility Drug to the Body

When Should We Use Contraception In Wildlife?

Uses of Contraception in Wildlife

Oiling, Addling, or Puncturing Eggs

Efforts in Australia to Resolfe Human-Wildlife Conflicts Using Immunocontraceptives

What are the Drawbacks to Wildlife Contraception?

Public Perceptions of Wildlife Fertility Control

Laws Governing the Use of Fertility Control to Manage Wildlife

Wildlife Translocation

Examples of the Use of Translocation to Resolve Wildlife Conflicts

Do Translocated Animals Return to the Site where They Were Captured?

Do New Animals Replace the Translocated Ones so that the Problem Persists?

Do Translocated Animals Create the Same Problem Elsewhere?

What Happens to Translocated Animals?

What are the Consequences of Translocation on Resident Wildlife Populations?

Is Translocation Cost-Effective?

What are Governmental Policies Concerning the Translocation of Nuisance Animals?

When Is Translocation Warranted?

Fear-Provoking Stimuli

Visula Stimuli

Auditory Stimuli

Olfactory Stimuli

Chemical Stimuli

The Problem of Habituation

Can Habituation to Fear-Provoking Stimuli Be Delayed?

Using Live Predators as Fear-Provoking Stimuli

Using Guard Dogs as Fear-Provoking Stimuli

Hazing or Harassment

Chemical Repellants

How Plants Use Chemicals to Defend Themselves from Herbivores

Biological Basis of Food Preferences

Types of Repellants

Conditioned Food Aversions Based on Deception

Similarities between Batesian Mimicry and DBFA

Factors Influencing Repellant Effectiveness to Reduce Wildlife Damage

Laws Governing the Use of Vertebrate Repellants


Optimal Foraging Theory

Large Group Formation as an Antipredator Behavior - A Natural Form of Diversion

Examples of Diversion to Resolve Human-Wildlife Conflicts

Creating a Food Diversion through Habitat Modification

Response of Wildlife to Supplemental Food

Response of Wildlife Diversion

Cost Effectiveness

What Type of Food or Crop Should Be Used in Diversion?

Where Should a Feeder Station or Diversion Crop be Located?

Can Wildlife Damage and the Effectiveness of Diversion Be Predicted?

Which are Better, Diversionary Crops or Feeder Stations?

Can Diversion Be Used with Other Techniques?


Factors Influencing the Cost Effectiveness of Fencing to Reduce Wildlife Damage

Fences to Exclude Deer

Using Fences to Reduce Predation on Livestock

Using Exclusion to Reduce Predation on Nesting Birds

Using Barriers to Protect Individual trees from Herbivores

Exclusionary Devices to Prevent Beaver from Rebuilding Dams

Using a Trap-Barrier System to Reduce Rat Damage in Rice Fields

Using Exclusion to Solve Bird Damage

Excluding Wildlife from Buildings

Habitat Manipulation

Reducing Human-Wildlife Conflicts by Modifying the Resource

Reducing Human-Wildlife Conflicts by Modifying the Habitat around the Resource

Reducing Human-Wildlife Conflicts at the Landscape Level

Human Dimensions

Societal Responses to Wildlife Damage

Differences in Attitudes toward Wildlife

Stakeholder Perceptions of Wildlife Damage

Impact of Wildlife Damage on a Person's Attitudes toward Wildlife

The Concept of Cultural Carrying Capacity

Why is the Management of Human-Wildlife Conflicts So Controversial?

Making Policy Decisions Regarding Wildlife Damage Management

Forming Partnerships between Wildlife Agencies and People Suffering from Wildlife Damage

Resolving Human-Wildlife Conflicts through the Human Dimension

Are People's Perceptions about Wildlife Damage Accurate?

Developing an Integrated Approach

Reducing Blackbird Damage to Sunflowers

Reducing Bird Predation at Fish Farms

Protecting Ground-Nesting Birds from Mammalian Predators


Latin Names for Species Mentioned in the Text

All chapters include a Summary section and Literature Cited.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
NATURE / Animals / General
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / Zoology / General
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / General