Revolution and Its Past: Identities and Change in Modern Chinese History, 3rd Edition (Paperback) book cover

Revolution and Its Past

Identities and Change in Modern Chinese History, 3rd Edition

By R. Keith Schoppa

Routledge

496 pages

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Description

Unlike other texts on modern Chinese history, which tend to be either encyclopedic or too pedantic, Revolution and Its Past is comprehensive but concise, focused on the most recent scholarship, and written in a style that engages students from beginning to end. The Third Edition uses the theme of identities--of the nation itself and of the Chinese people--to probe the vast changes that have swept over China from late imperial times to the early twenty-first century. In so doing, it explores the range of identities that China has chosen over time and those that outsiders have attributed to China and its people, showing how, as China rapidly modernizes, the issue of Chinese identity in the modern world looms large.

Table of Contents

Preface

Notes on Pronunciation

List of Maps

Part 1: From the Heights to the Depths: Challenges to Traditional Chinese Identities, 1780—1901

Chapter 1: IDENTITIES

History and Identity

Associational Identities: Lineages and Families

Associational Identities: Social Connections

Associational Identities: Relations to the “Other”

Spatial Identities: Native Place

Spatial Identities: Village and Marketing Communities

Spatial Identities: Macroregions and Provinces

Chapter 2: CHINESE AND MANCHUS

Patterns in Early Qing

Preserving a Manchu Identity

Buying Into Chinese Culture

Dealing with the Other

Identity and Change: The Qianlong Emperor in the Late Eighteenth Century

Identity Crisis

Emerging Problems

The Daoguang Emperor

Chapter 3: THE OPIUM WAR AND THE TREATY SYSTEM: CHALLENGES TO CHINESE IDENTITY

The Early Western Role

China and the West: Mutual Perceptions

Opium: The Problem and the War

The Unequal Treaty System and Its Impact on Chinese Identity

The Missionary and Cultural Imperialism

Chapter 4: AN AGE OF REBELLION: DEFIANCE OF AND COMMITMENTS TO TRADITIONAL CHINESE IDENTITIES

Traditional Rebellions

The Taiping War (1851—1864): Attempting to Revolutionize Identity

Guerrilla Warfare: The Nian Rebellion (1853—1868)

Muslims versus Chinese: Clashes in Ethnic Identity

Chapter 5: THE POWER OF TRADITIONAL CULTURAL IDENTITY: CHINESE REACTIONS TO CONTINUING THREATS

Unwilling to Change (Or Holding to that Old-Time Identity)

Self-Strengthening

The Loss of Tributary States: Ryukyu Islands, Korea, and Vietnam

The War with France and the Impact of Self-Strengthening

Identity and Perception: The Roles of the Empress Dowager

Chapter 6: THE DEVASTATING NINETIES: DESTROYING TRADITIONAL IDENTITIES

Ideology for Change: Kang Youwei’s Intellectual Bomb

Political and Cultural Earthquake: Defeat by the “Dwarf People”

A New Phase of Imperialism: Carving the Melon

The Reform Movement and the Hundred Days: Clashing Identities

The Boxer Catastrophe: Which Identity Now?

Part 2: “No Checking the Tides of Change”: Reconstructing Social, Cultural, and Political Identity, 1901—1928

Chapter 7: Revolutionaries: Manchu and Anti-Manchu

The Stirrings of a New China in Macroregional Cores

The Manchu Reform Movement: Education

The Manchu Reform Movement: Military Change

The Manchu Reform Movement: Constitutionalism

The Anti-Manchu Revolutionary Movement

The 1911 Revolution

Chapter 8: SELECTING IDENTITIES: THE EARLY REPUBLIC

Legacies of the Revolution

The Presidency of Yuan Shikai

Capitalists to the Fore

The Power of the Gun

China Totters on the World Stage

Chapter 9: CONSTRUCTING A NEW CULTURAL IDENTITY: THE MAY FOURTH MOVEMENT

The New Culture Movement: “Down with Confucius and Sons”

Language and Laboratories for a New Culture

The May Fourth Incident and Its Aftermath

Political Change First; Cultural Change Will Follow

Cultural Change First; Political Change Will Follow

Neotraditionalism

The Historical Significance of the May Fourth Movement

Chapter 10: DRAWING THE SWORD OF OPPOSITION: IDENTITY INCREASINGLY POLITICIZED

The Birth of the Chinese Communist Party

Giving the Guomindang a New Identity

Things Fall Apart: Sun’s Death and the May 30th Movement

The Beginning of Mass Mobilization

The Emergence of Chiang Kai-shek and the Northern Expedition

Part 3: Revolution and Identity: Social Revolution and the Power of Tradition, 1928—1960

Chapter 11: REVOLUTION IN RETREAT: THE NANJING DECADE

Chiang Kai-shek

Military Power, Party Factionalism, and Residual Warlordism

Secrets of Chiang’s Ability to Retain Power

Chiang’s Record

Chapter 12: REVOLUTION REBORN: THE COMMUNISTS IN THE 1930s

The Party: “So Widely Scattered and So Badly Mauled”

Finding Its Way: The Party’s Factions

The Jiangxi Soviet

The Other Soviets

The Long March

Building the Base at Yan’an

Chapter 13: A RISING CLASH OF NATIONAL IDENTITIES: CHINA AND JAPAN, THE 1920s AND 1930s

A Case of Mistaken Identity

Japanese Aggression Turns Manchuria into Manchukuo

Japanese Aggression on the March

The Xi’an Incident

Marco Polo Bridge

Chapter 14: THE SINO—JAPANESE WAR, 1937—1945

The War’s General Course: An Overview

The Exodus

Soldiers and the Military

Collaboration

Wartime Propaganda

The United States and China in Wartime: Rough Sledding

The Communists in Yan’an, 1942—1945

Wartime Guomindang China

Chapter 15: TOWARD DAYBREAK: STRUGGLING FOR CHINA’S IDENTITY, 1945—1949

The Situation at War’s End

Economic Suicide

Political Disaster

Military Struggle

Did Chiang Lose the War or Did Mao Win the War?

Japan’s Colony, Taiwan

Guomindang Relations with the Taiwanese: February 1947 and Its Impact

Chapter 16: PATHS TO THE FUTURE

The Structure of the Communist Party-State

The East Is Red: The Hallmarks of the Communist Revolution

At War with the United Nations: The Korean War

The First Five-Year Plan (1953—1957)

The Taiwan Model: Authoritarianism and Reform

The Taiwan “Miracle”

Chapter 17: COMING UNGLUED

“Let a Hundred Flowers Bloom!” (Then Cut Them Down)

The Great Leap Forward (and Backward)

The Worst Famine in History

The Sino—Soviet Split

Crack-Up

Part 4: From “Politics in Command” to the Glory of Getting Rich: Contemporary Change and Identity, 1961—2009

Chapter 18: DEATH DANCE: THE GREAT PROLETARIAN CULTURAL REVOLUTION

Why?

The Violently Radical Red Guard Phase, 1966—1969

The Mystery of Lin Biao

The Year of the Dragon

Mao in Retrospect

Chapter 19: ECONOMICS IN COMMAND: THE END OF COMMUNISM AND THE FLOURISHING OF “MARKET SOCIALISM”

Socialism with a Chinese Face

Opening the Window to the World

The Expansion of Economic Reforms, 1990-2009

Government Action in Dealing with Impacts of Reform

Chapter 20: “ONE WORLD, ONE DREAM”: CHINA’S NEW WORLD

Political Authoritarianism

Nationalism and International Relations

2008: Achievements and Problems

Chapter 21: A QUESTION OF IDENTITY: THE REPUBLIC OF CHINA ON TAIWAN SINCE THE 1970s

Birth of a Democracy

The Issue: The Relationship with the PRC

From Economic Miracle to Economic Problems

Diplomacy: Seeking Respect

Society in Flux

A Question of Identity

Epilogue: The Issue of Human Rights

Notes

Pronunciation Guide

Index

Credits

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
HIS008000
HISTORY / Asia / China
HIS037050
HISTORY / Modern / 18th Century
HIS037060
HISTORY / Modern / 19th Century
HIS037070
HISTORY / Modern / 20th Century
HIS037080
HISTORY / Modern / 21st Century