Risk Assessment and Security for Pipelines, Tunnels, and Underground Rail and Transit Operations  book cover
1st Edition

Risk Assessment and Security for Pipelines, Tunnels, and Underground Rail and Transit Operations

ISBN 9781466569324
Published June 3, 2014 by CRC Press
414 Pages 39 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Risk Assessment and Security for Pipelines, Tunnels, and Underground Rail and Transit Operations details a quantitative risk assessment methodology for systematically analyzing various alternatives for protecting underground rail, oil and gas pipelines, pipeline freight transportation, and other tunnel systems from terrorism threats and other disasters. It examines the engineering, environmental, and economic impacts and addresses both direct and collateral damage.

The book describes how to employ the methodology of quantitative psychology for effectively assessing risk in homeland security, defense actions, and critical infrastructure protection. Using pipelines, tunnels, underground rapid rail, and transit systems as examples, it maintains an emphasis on applying quantitative psychology to risk management in the areas of homeland security and defense.

  • Outlines the background and system operations of pipelines, tunnels, underground rail, and transit systems as well as other super-speed futuristic trains
  • Covers materials used for fabricating weapons of mass destruction and operations for terrorism
  • Deals with the probabilistic risk estimation process, event tree analysis, and fault tree analysis
  • Discusses the risk and vulnerability assessment tools and methodologies used by experts and governmental agencies

Approved for public release by the U.S. Federal Government, this book presents regulations, standard processes, and risk assessment models recommended by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and other federal and state agencies. Describing how to evaluate terrorism threats and warnings, it details protocols for preventive measures and emergency preparedness plans that are based on economic analysis.

With comprehensive coverage that includes risk estimation and risk acceptability analysis, the book provides a foundational understanding of risk and the various defensive systems that can improve safety and security as well as thwart terrorists’ efforts to sabotage critical infrastructure.

Table of Contents

Risk Acceptability of Terrorism and Disaster

Hazards, Terrorism, and Weapons of Mass Destruction on Pipelines, Tunnels, and Underground Rail and Transit Systems
     Terrorism and Disasters against Pipelines, Tunnels, Underground Rail, and Transit Systems
Understanding the Basic Structure of Terror Organization
     Basic Recruitment Operations
     Terror Aspirant and Self-Radicalization
     Terror Member
     Terror-Suicide Bomber
     Technical Bomb and Improvised Explosive Devices Developer
     Terrorists Specializing in Chemical Threat
     Terrorists Specializing in Biological Threat
     Terrorists Specializing in Radiological and Nuclear Weapons
     Terrorist Intelligence Information and Reconnaissance Operation
     Terror Planner and Military Operation Planner
Weapons of Mass Destruction
Chemical Explosives
     Acetone Peroxide
     Ammonium Nitrate
     Ammonium Nitrate–Fuel Oil
     Cyclonite (RDX)
     Dingu and Sorguyl
     Hexamethylenetetramine Dinitrate
     Lead Azide
     Lead Styphnate
     Mercury(II) Fulminate
     Octagen (HMX)
     Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate
     Picric Acid
     Plastic Explosives
Mechanical Components and Applications of Chemical Explosives
     Aluminum Powder
     Base Charge
     Blasting Caps
     Blasting Galvanometer
     Blasting Machine
     Blast Meters and Boosters
     Bridgewire Detonator
     Delay Time and Element
          Shock Wave
          Detonation Wave Theory
          Selective Detonation
          Sympathetic Detonation
          Detonation Development Distance
     Electroexplosive Device
     Oxidizer and Oxygen Balance of Explosives 
     Heat of Explosion
     Underwater Detonation
          Shock Wave of Underwater Detonation
          Gas Bubble
     Calculation of Explosives
     Hazards of Explosives
Chemical Threats as Poisonous Weapons and Lethal Dose (LD50)
     Chemicals’ LD50
          Cyanide LD50
     Mustard Agents
     Nerve Agents
     Toxic Industrial Agents
          Arsenic LD50
     Inorganic Contaminants
     Organic Contaminants
Biological Weapons
Radiological and Nuclear Threats
     Radiological Dispersion Device
     Improvised Nuclear Device
     Nuclear Reactor Accident
      Nuclear Weapon
Natural Disaster and Hazard
     Extreme Heat
     Landslides and Mudslides
     Winter Weather
     Space Weather

Introduction to Pipelines, Tunnels, Underground Rail and Transit Operations, Terrorism, and Disasters
Disaster and Acts of Terrorism against Pipelines, Tunnels, Underground Rail, and Transit Systems
     Security for Hazardous and Radioactive Material Transport Systems
     Fire, Explosion, and Detonation
          Vapor Cloud Explosion and Jet Flames
          Flash Point
          Flammability Range
          Autoignition Temperature
          Flame Speed and Burning Velocity
          Pool Fires
     Emission and Dispersion
          Dispersion Situation: Buoyancy Effects
          Dispersion Situation: Momentum Effects
          Dispersion Situation: Source Terms
          Dispersion Situation: Source Elevation
          Dispersion Situation: Meteorology and Topography
          Dispersion Situation: Building and Obstructions
     High Toxic Release
     Dust and Fragment Explosion
          Explosion Process3.2.6 Freight Capsule or Vessel Burst Pressure and Energy Distribution
     Explosion Destruction by Missiles
          Sources, Types, and Propagation of Missiles
          Number and Size of Missiles
          Velocity of Missiles
          Angle of Departure of Missiles
          Shape, Air Resistance, and Flight of Missiles
          Flying Glass
          Falling Masonry and Glass
Underground Freight Transportation through Pipelines, Tubular Rail, and Magnetic Levitation
     Automated Transportation System
     Automated Transportation Logistic System
     Underground Transportation Logistic System
     Pneumatic Capsule Pipeline for Underground Freight 
     Underground Container and Capsule Transport Systems
     Tubular Rail
     Magnetic Levitation Transportation System
Railroad and Railway Systems
Oil, Gas, and Other Hazardous Liquid Pipelines
     Unregulated Hazardous Material Liquid Pipelines
Underwater/Immersed Tunnel and Cross-River Tunnel
Transportation Tunnels
     Road Tunnels
     Transit and Rail Tunnels
Mine Tunnel
Drainage Tunnel
Defense and Warfare Tunnels
Illegal Underground Tunnels

Risk and Vulnerability Assessment
National Aeronautics and Space Administration Risk Analysis and Management
     Risk Matrices
     FMECAs, FMEAs, and Fault Trees
     NASA Probabilistic Risk Assessment
Standard Homeland Security Risk Assessment and RAMCAP Plus Processes
     Fatalities and Serious Injuries
     Financial and Economic Impacts
     Vulnerability Analysis
     Threat Assessment
     Risk and Resilience Assessment
     Risk and Resilience Management
Department of Defense Risk Assessment and Management
     Risk Reporting Matrix
     Security Risk Categories
CARVER + Shock
Model-Based Vulnerability Analysis
Freight Assessment System
Federal Emergency Management Agency HAZUS-MH
Security Vulnerability Assessment
Automated Targeting System
     ATS-Trend Analysis and Analytical Selectivity
Sandia National Laboratories Security Risk Assessment Methods
ASME RA-S Probabilistic Risk Assessment
Development of Prospect Theory
     Expected Utility Theory
     Prospect Theory
Cumulative Prospect Theory
     Framing Effects
     Nonlinear Preferences
     Source Dependence
     Risk Seeking
     Loss Aversion
     Cumulative Prospect Theory
Author’s Thoughts

Quantitative Risk Estimation Model for Pipelines, Tunnels, Underground Rapid Rail, and Transit Systems
Elements of Risk Assessment
     Risk Estimation Development for Terrorism against Pipelines, Rails, and Tunnels
     Risk Estimation Development for Clandestine Fabrication and Transshipment of Weapons of Mass Destruction by Terrorists and Rebellious States to Endangering Homeland Security
Event Tree Analysis
Estimation of Risk and Risk Factors
     Calculation of Risk Rate
     Life Expectancy Models
Fault Tree Analysis
     Example of Event Tree Analysis
Identification of Hazards
Terrorism Intrusion
Flash Fire Probability
Flash Fire: Ignition of Flammable Materials
Detonation of Explosive Devices
Large-Scale WMD Detonation
Pipelines, Tunnels, Underground Rail, and Transit Systems Adjacent to Human Population
Guideway Short Circuit
Pipelines, Tunnels, Underground Rail, and Transit Systems Adjacent to Critical Assets
Pipelines, Tunnels, Underground Rail, and Transit System Rupture
Sensor Failure
Mechanical and Electrical Failure
Capsules, Underground Rail, and Transit System Derailment and Collision
HAZMAT Freight Container and Pipeline Damage, Collapse, and Spill
Risk Index Matrix
Human Injury Risk

Risk Acceptability Analysis Based on Quantitative Psychology of Intuitive Judgments
     Public Perception of Risk: Quantitative
Psychology of Intuitive Judgment and Cumulative Prospect Theory
          Voluntary or Involuntary
          Discounting Time
          Identifiability of Taking a Statistical Risk
          Avoidability of Risks
          Position in Hierarchy of Consequence
          Ordinary or Catastrophic
          Natural or Man-Originated
          Magnitude of Probability of Occurrence
Strategic Determination of Risk Acceptability
Quantitative Revealed Societal Preference Method
     Behavior and Risk Attitude
     Establishing Risk Comparison Factors
     Controllability of Risks
     Perceived Degree of Control
     System Control in Risk Reduction
          Systemic Control of Risk
          Control Factors
     Controllability of New Technological Systems
     Cost–Benefit Analysis
     Prerequisites for Risk Acceptance of Terrorist Attacks and Disaster
          Requirement for a Methodology
Establishing the Risk Referent
     Multiple Risk Referents
     Risk Proportionality Factor Derivation from Risk
     Risk Proportionality Derating Factors
     Degree of Systemic Control
     Conversion of a Risk Reference to a Risk Referent

Strategic Intelligence Analysis, Military Support, and Military Intuitive Judgment in Safeguarding Pipelines, Tunnels, Underground Rail and Transit Operations and Homeland
Intelligence Analysis
Standard Intelligence Analysis Cycle
Quantitative Risk Estimation for the Intelligence Analysis of Infrastructure Protection and WMD Mitigation
Intelligence Analysis Development: Risk Estimation Models for Rail System Threat and Intuitive Predictions for the Smuggle of WMD Components and Clandestine Terror-Military Operations
Intelligence Analysis: Event Tree Analysis Model
Perspectives of Risk Acceptability in Strategic Intelligence Analysis
     Risk Estimation and Risk Acceptability
Perspectives of Risk Acceptability Analysis for Pipelines, Tunnels, Underground Rail, and Transit Systems
Military Intuitive Judgment and Decision-Making Process
     Command of the Armed Forces and the Chain of Command
     Understanding Military Operations
Requirement of Military Support for Critical Infrastructure and Homeland Security
     Northern Command
     Department of Defense: Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Incident Response
          US Army Chemical Material Agency
          US Army Research, Development, and Engineering Command
          US Army—20th Support Command Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and High-Yield Explosives Analytical Remediation Activity
          US Army: 20th Support Command Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives
          Joint Program Executive Office for Chemical and Biological Defense
          National Guard Weapons of Mass Destruction: Civil Support Teams
          US Army Special Operations Command
     Posse Comitatus Act: USC Title 18, §1385
     Insurrection Act: USC Title 10, §331–335, Chapter 15
     Military Support to Civilian Authorities: USC Title 10, §371–382, Chapter 18
     Military Support: Maintenance of Other Troops: USC Title 32, §109, Chapter 1
     National Guard for Homeland Defense Duty: USC Title 32, §904, Chapter 9
     Response to Threats of Terrorist Use of Weapons of Mass Destruction: USC Title 50, §2311, Chapter 40
     Presidential Policy Directive 8
     Manual for Civil Emergencies: DoD3025.1M
     Military Support to Civilian Authorities: DoDD 3025.1
     Military Assistance to Civilian Authorities: DoDD 3025.15

Preparedness, Preventive, and Defensive Measures
National Response Framework
     Local Governments
          Roles of Chief Elected or Appointed Officials
          Roles of Emergency Managers
          Roles of Department and Agency Heads
           Roles of Individuals and Households
     States, Territories, and Tribal Governments
          Roles of the Governor
          Roles of the State Homeland Security Adviser
          Roles of the Director of the State Emergency Management Agency
          Roles of Other State Departments and Agencies
          Roles of Indian Tribes
          Roles of Tribal Leaders
     Federal Government
          Role of the Secretary of Homeland Security
          Law Enforcement
          National Defense and Defense Support of Civil Authorities
          International Coordination
          Private Sector and Nongovernmental Organizations
          Roles of Private Sector
          Roles of Nongovernmental Organizations
          Roles of Volunteers and Donors
Emergency Preparedness
      Exercises, Evaluation, and Improvement
     Baseline Priorities
     Local, Tribal, and State Actions
     Federal Actions
     Operations Center
Activate and Deploy Resources
Proactive Response to Catastrophic Incidents
Preventive and Defensive Measures
     Oil and Gas Pipeline Protection
     Road, Highway, and Rail Tunnel Protection
          Fire and Emergency Response
          Preventive Systems for Road and Highway Tunnels
          Preventive Measures for Terrorism
          Minimum Standard Preventive Measures
          High Standard Preventive Measures
     System Protection Interoperability for Road, Highway, and Rail Tunnels
          Emergency Responders and Operating Procedures
          Engineering and Salient Features of Technological Systems
Mine Tunnels Hazard Prevention
     Lighting in Mine Tunnel
     Emergency Supply Facilities
     Thermal Stress
     Well-Being Monitoring
     Personal Safety Devices and Accessories
     Surface Area Boundary Planning and Design
     Hazard, Vulnerability, and Risk Management of Mine Tunnels
     Hazardous Substances
     Fire and Explosion
     Heating and Inundation
     Outburst and Rockburst
     Strata Control in Mine Tunnel
     Mine Tunnel Explosive Materials Handling
     Mine Tunnel Ventilation
     Mine Tunnel Ventilation System Planning
     Airways, Air Crossings, and Stoppings
     Mine Tunnel Emergency Response: Fire Control and General Emergency Systems
Approaches for the Detection of Illegal Tunnels by Other Experts
     Ground-Penetrating Radar 
     Seismic Waves
     Electrical Resistivity
     Microgravity and Gravity Surveying
     Cosmic Rays
     Cross-Well Radar
     High-Resolution Seismic Methods
     Approach to the Tunnel Detection Agent-Based Model
     Electromagnetic Induction
     Tunnel Detection Using Forward Scatter between Borehole Signal Sources
     Fiber-Based Brillouin Optical Time Domain Reflectometry
Approaches for the Detection of Land Mines and Improvised Explosive Devices by Other Experts
     Weapons Technological Intelligence
     Ultra-Wideband Microwave Technology
     Foot Patrols
     Lasers to Find Land Mines and IEDs
     Laser Drilling and Analyzing System
     Terahertz Quantum Cascade Lasers
     Dogs for IED Detectors
     Radio Signal
     Talon II Remote-Controlled Robot/Intelligent Robots
     Mine Clearing Line Charge
Countering Nuclear and Radiological Threats
Mother Nature and Intelligent-Improvised Explosive Devices to Defeat the Low-Tech IEDs, Land Mines, Other Hidden Weapons, and the Enemy
Author’s Thoughts

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