EU–Middle East relations are multifaceted, varied and complex, shaped by historical, political, economic, migratory, social and cultural dynamics. Covering these relations from a broad perspective that captures continuities, ruptures and entanglements, this handbook provides a clearer understanding of trends, thus contributing to a range of different turns in international relations.
The interdisciplinary and diverse assessments through which readers may grasp a more nuanced comprehension of the intricate entanglements in EU–Middle East relations are carefully provided in these pages by leading experts in the various (sub)fields, including academics, think-tankers, as well as policymakers. The volume offers original reflections on historical constructions; theoretical approaches; multilateralism and geopolitical perspectives; contemporary issues; peace, security and conflict; and development, economics, trade and society.
This handbook provides an entry point for an informed exploration of the multiple themes, actors, structures, policies and processes that mould EU–Middle East relations. It is designed for policymakers, academics and students of all levels interested in politics, international and global studies, contemporary history, regionalism and area studies.
Table of Contents
1. Introduction: Entanglements in EU–Middle East Relations
Dimitris Bouris, Daniela Huber & Michelle Pace
Part I. History
2. Europe and the Ottoman Empire: Images of Self and the Other
Senem Aydın-Düzgit, Johanna Chovanec & Bahar Rumelili
3. French and British Colonialism and its Legacy in the MENA region
Sune Haugbølle & Roberto Mazza
4. Longue-Durée Reflections on Anti-Colonial Movements in the Middle-East (1798–today)
5. A Postcolonial Critique of EU–Middle East Relations
Part II. Theoretical Perspectives
6. Everyday Middle Easts
7. The EU's Constructions of the Middle East
8. Security Within and Beyond the Borders of Europe: Locating the European Union as a Security Actor
Zeynep Arkan Tuncel
9. International Relations Theory and EU–Middle East Relations
10. From Descriptive and Evaluative Accounts to Causal Explanations for EU–Middle East Relations
Fred H. Lawson
11. Postcolonial Theory and EU–Middle East Relations: Recognising Co-constitutions
12. Feminist and Queer Perspectives on EU–Middle East Relations
Hanna L. Muehlenhoff
Part III. Multilateralism and Geopolitical Perspectives
13. In the Shadow of the European Neighbourhood: Political Geographies of EU–Middle East Relations
14. The EU and Arab Regionalism
15. The EU and the Gulf Cooperation Council: a Troubled Relationship
16. EU Foreign Policy Incoherence in the United Nations: the Case of the Middle East
Ioannis Galariotis & Maria Gianniou
17. The Transatlantic Relationship and the Middle East: Converging Interests, Diverging Praxis
Andrea Dessì & Vassilis Ntousas
18. Turkey and the European Union in the Middle East: Potential for Cooperation or Continuing Discord?
Meltem Müftüler-Baç & Damla Cihangir-Tetik
19. Russia and the EU in the Middle East: From Mutual Distrust to Forced Cooperation?
Maxim A. Suchkov & Polina Vasilenko
Part IV. MENA–EU Relations in the Contemporary World
20. Perceptions of the EU: Activists and Public Opinion in the Middle East
Andrea Teti, Gennaro Gervasio & Pamela Abbott
21. Populist Politics in Europe and their Impact on EU Relations with the Middle East: EU–Turkey Relations as a Case Study
22. EU–Israeli relations: Geopolitical Perspectives in the Wake of Nationalist Populism
Sharon Pardo & Dani Filc
23. On EU–Arab Democratisation: Towards a Democratic "Learning Loop"
Larbi Sadiki & Layla Saleh
24. Moderate Islamist Parties in the MENA Region and Europe: Between the Democracy–Human Rights Nexus and the Stability–Security Nexus
25. Inter-religious Dialogue in the Euro-Mediterranean Region: a Multi-Stakeholder Approach
26. EU–Egypt Relations at a Crossroads
27. Winds of Change? Negotiating Gender Relations in the Middle East and North Africa
Part V. Peace, Security and Conflict in the Middle East
28. The European Union and the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: How Member States Came Together Only to Fall Apart Again
Federica Bicchi & Benedetta Voltolini
29. EU–Lebanon Relations
30. The EU in Post-2003 Iraq
Maria Luisa Fantappie
31. EU–Afghanistan Relations
32. EU–Syria Relations
Anis Nacrour & Jouanah Ghori
33. The European Union and Yemen
34. The EU and Iran: How a Critical Relationship Became a Troubled One
Cornelius Adebahr & Riccardo Alcaro
35. EU–Middle East Relations And the Fight Against Terrorism
Part VI. Development, Economics, Trade and Societal Issues
36. Aid, Security And Fortress Europe: EU Development Aid in the Middle East and North Africa
Emile Badarin & Jeremy Wildeman
37. Migration and Refugees in EU–Middle East Relations
Beste İşleyen & Tamirace Fakhoury
38. Europe and MENA Youth
39. Assessing EU–Middle East Trade Relations: Patterns, Policies and Imbalances
Nora Aboushady and Chahir Zaki
40. Their Violence or Ours? EU–Middle East Arms Sales and Military Cooperation
41. Clean Growth For the Benefit of Both? Towards a More Inclusive Approach To EU–MENA Environmental Relations
Martin Keulertz & Musa McKee
Dimitris Bouris is Assistant Professor (Senior Lecturer) in the Department of Political Science at the University of Amsterdam. He is also the leader and coordinator of the EUMENIA Jean Monnet Network. His research focus lies at the intersection of international relations, EU Studies and Middle East and North Africa Studies.
Daniela Huber is Head of the Mediterranean and Middle East Programme at the Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI), editor of The International Spectator and Adjunct Professor at Roma Tre University. Her latest book is The International Dimension of the Israel-Palestinian Conflict: A Post-Eurocentric Approach (2021).
Michelle Pace is Professor in Global Studies at Roskilde University. Her research interests comprise EU external relations, emotions in international relations and migration studies. Her most recent publications include a Special Issue of Interventions on "Imperial Pasts in the EU’s Approach to the Mediterranean" (2020).
"Such a comprehensive and multifaceted approach to complex and shifting realities of EU–Middle East relations goes beyond the theoretical or abstract dimension to include pragmatic assessments of both the policy and praxis that have shaped these relations. This handbook provides concerned readers with a critical assessment that illuminates evolutionary and intrinsic developments while charting the course of interactive connectivity that impacted both regions. This handbook is a really valuable resource indeed."
Hanan Ashrawi, Distinguished Palestinian Leader and Former PLO Executive Committee Member
"A lot has been written on the European Union and the Middle East, but nothing as complete and original as this handbook. It covers everything that is relevant to know, analyse, discuss: from history to the most recent policy developments, utilising extremely innovative angles, and connecting the many different dots that are needed to draw the most complete picture of such a complex relation, between such complex regions. Original viewpoints, diversity of perspectives, a very sound academic approach matched with a unique attention to practice and policymaking, make this handbook an indispensable reference for all those who study the Middle East and the EU, work on it, or are simply interested in deepening their understanding of such a fascinating topic. You will love reading it, even when you will not agree with some of its analysis. You will use it again and again. And you will always find something new, unexpected and precious in it."
Federica Mogherini, Rector of the College of Europe and former High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy
"This is a remarkable collection of accessible chapters, putting EU–Middle East Relations in a fresh light. This handbook does not shy away from the colonial past in that relationship and manages to capture continuity while noting occasional ruptures. The 61 contributors cover a wide range of topics and offer a rich interdisciplinary approach that make this handbook a significant contribution to scholarship. The flowing writing style, the nuanced analysis of complex cases and the depth of knowledge exhibited in this handbook make it an essential source."
Shahram Akbarzadeh, Professor of Middle East & Central Asian Politics, Deakin University, Australia
"A rich and provocative contribution to the study of European–Middle Eastern relations, showing how current dynamics are informed by continuities from the past as well as historical ruptures. More than a guide, it challenges readers (scholars and policy practitioners alike) to approach the subject introspectively in order to fully understand how situations have arisen. Together the introduction and design make this a remarkably successful handbook in which coherence prevails amid a diversity of perspectives."
Richard Gillespie, Emeritus Professor of Politics, University of Liverpool