1st Edition

Routledge Handbook of Evidence-Based Criminal Justice Practices

Edited By Edelyn Verona, Bryanna Fox Copyright 2024

    Now more than ever, the criminal justice system, and the programs, policies, and practices within it, are subject to increased public scrutiny, due to well-founded concerns over effectiveness, fairness, and potential unintended consequences. One of the best means to address these concerns is to draw upon evidence-based approaches demonstrated to be effective through empirical research, rather than through anecdote, standard practice, or professional experience alone (National Institute of Justice, 2011).

    The goal of this book is to describe the most useful, actionable, and evidence-based solutions to many of the most pressing questions in the criminal justice system today. Specifically, this edited volume contains brief and accessible summaries of the best available research, alongside detailed descriptions of evidence-based practices, across different areas of the criminal justice system. It is written so that practitioners and researchers alike can use the text as reference tool in their work and in training the new generation of individuals working to improve the system. Researchers and practitioners in many areas of criminal justice – crime prevention, policing, courts (prosecution, defendants, judges), corrections, sanctions, and sentencing – can reference specific chapters in this book to guide their policy and practice decisions. Although theory is a guide for the practices described, the chapters will address practical issues in implementation and action.

    This book overcomes the limitations of previous criminal justice practice books in that it is written as a practice resource and reference guide and spans practices and policies across different sectors of the criminal justice system – from prevention to policing to sanctions and corrections. Each chapter contains a list of action items, based upon the best available scientific research, that can be implemented in practice to address key issues and long standing challenges in the criminal justice system.


    1.      Evidence-Based Approaches and Implementation Challenges and Solutions

    Edelyn Verona and Bryanna Fox


    PART I: Crime Prevention

    2.                  Social Disorganization Theory and Community-Based Interventions

    Charis E. Kubrin and Rebecca Tublitz


    3.                  Evidence-Based Employment Practices to Reduce Offending

    Chae Jaynes, Kelly E. Kortright, and Mateus Rennó Santos

    4.                  Mental Health Interventions and Crisis Response Teams

    Emily Torres, Kendall Smith, Lauren Fournier, and Edelyn Verona


    5.                  Opioid Use Disorder, Infectious Disease, and Coordinated Harm Reduction in a Medical Setting

    Jason W. Wilson and Heather Henderson


    6.                  Adult Victims of Violence: Outcomes and Services

    Jillian Turanovic and Szilvia Biro


    7.                  Toward Evidence-Based Human Trafficking Prevention

    Joan A. Reid, Klejdis Bilali, Calli M. Cain, and Kaci Crook

    PART II:  Juvenile Justice and Early Interventions

    8.                  School-Based Prevention and Criminal Justice

    Ashley L. White


    9.                  Evidence-Based Criminal Justice Practices: Current Status and Strategies for Successful Youth Outreach and Enrichment Programming

    McKenzie N. Berezin, Raquel E. Rose, and Shabnam Javdani


    10.             Juvenile Residential and Out of Home Placement: Programs & Interventions

    Svetlana Yampolskaya


    11.             Juvenile Justice Practices

    Narim Lee and Jennifer Peck


    12.             Youth Decision-Making and Juvenile Justice Policy

    Lillian A. Rodriguez Steen and Lindsay C. Malloy

    PART III:  Predictors of Crime and Risk Assessment

    13.             Adverse Childhood Experiences and Offending: Strategies for Prevention, Intervention, and Building Resiliency

    Michael T. Baglivio


    14.             Early Psychosocial Risk Factors and Implications for Prevention

    David P. Farrington


    15.             Revisiting the Role of Sanction Risk Perceptions in Deterrence Policy

    Timothy C. Barnum and Greg Pogarsky


    16.             Sexual Offence Recidivism and Risk Assessment

    L. Maaike Helmus


    17.             Implementation Science and Evidence-Based Violence Risk Assessment

    Kevin Douglas



    PART IV: Policing

    18.             Evidence-Based Police Patrol Practices at Crime Hotspots

    Cory P. Haberman and Bradley J. O’Guinn


    19.             Police Technology

    Silas Patterson and Kenneth J. Novak


    20.             Drug Enforcement and Its Effectiveness

    Ojmarrh Mitchell and Alexander G. Toth


    21.             Evidence-Based Practices for Policing Domestic Violence

    Tara N. Richards, Gillian M. Pinchevsky, and Justin Nix


    22.             Interviewing and Interrogations: From the Third Degree to Science-Based Approaches

    Amelia Mindthoff and Christian A. Meissner


    23.             Evidence-Based Policing Reform and Building Community Relations

    Lexi Gill and Bryanna Fox

    PART V: The Courts

    24.             Evidence-Based Practices in Prosecution

    Raquel A. Hernandez, Sean Houlihan, and Brian D. Johnson


    25.             Defense Decision-Making and Practices

    Kelsey S. Henderson and Jacqueline G. Lee


    26.             Competence to Stand Trial: Evaluation and Restoration and Services

    Daniel C. Murrie, Neil Gowensmith, and Marcus T. Boccacicini


    27.             Eyewitness Identification

    Margaret Bull Kovera and Eliana Aronson


    28.             Implicit and Ingrained? Reducing Unconscious Bias among Jurors

    Angela Jones and Christine L. Ruva


    29.             Judicial Considerations in Sentencing: A Call for Evidence-Based Reform

    Judge John L. Badalamenti and Lindsay Holcomb


    30.             Problem-Solving Courts: A Brief Overview of Judicial Interventions

    Kathleen A. Moore, Melissa Carlson, and Kelsey Greenfield


    PART VI: Corrections

    31.             Correctional Programming: Evidence-Based Programs, Policies, and Practices

    Mark E. Olver and Keira C. Stockdale


    32.             Incarceration: Rehabilitative Versus Iatrogenic Effects

    Meghan A. Novisky and Meghan M. Mitchell


    33.             What Works in Improving Reentry Outcomes?: Effective Programs and Recommendations

    Edelyn Verona, Kendall Smith, Michelle Hua, and Bryanna Fox


    34.             Supporting Healing and Wholeness: Evidence-Based Practices in Community Supervision

    Alexander M. Holsinger


    35.             Justice-Involved Persons with Opioid Use Disorder: Reducing Overdose and Criminal Recidivism

    Khary Rigg


    PART VII: Considerations for Policy Change

    36.             Criminal Justice Interventions Against Drug Use and Harms

    Greg Midgette, Jacob Scocca, and Anna Newell


    37.             Effective Bail Reform Strategies Drawn from a Limited Evidence Base

    Evan M. Lowder, Ashley Rodriguez, and Carmen Diaz


    38.             Examining Dilemmas about the State of America’s Death Penalty

    Anna R. Dixon and Ali Shakoor


    39.             Firearm Policy and Regulation in America: Promising Avenues for Future Research

    Emma E. Fridel


    40.             Mass Incarceration

    Bryan L. Sykes and J. Amanda Sharry


    41.             Anti-Racism & Racial Justice in the Criminal Justice System

    Micah E. Johnson and Skye C. Bristol


    Conclusion & Integration

    42.             Toward Policy Refinement: Multi-Systemic and Evidence-Based Approaches

    Edelyn Verona, Emily Torres, and Bryanna Fox


    Bryanna Fox is an Associate Professor in the Department of Criminology and Faculty Affiliate of the Florida Mental Health Institute at the University of South Florida.  Dr. Fox earned her PhD from the University of Cambridge and is a former FBI Special Agent. Her research focuses on the identification of psychological and developmental risk factors for criminal behavior and prolific offending, experimental field research, and evidence-based policing and crime prevention strategies. She has published more than 40 peer-reviewed articles in outlets such as: Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Justice Quarterly, Criminal Justice & Behavior, Law & Society Review, and Psychological Bulletin. Dr. Fox is Co-Editor of Justice Quarterly and a member of Editorial Boards for Criminology & Public Policy, Criminal Justice & Behavior, Youth Violence & Juvenile Justice, Policing: An International Journal, and the Journal of Criminal Justice. She is on the Executive Board of the American Society of Criminology’s Division of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology. She received the 2017 Early Career Award from the American Society of Criminology’s Division of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology, the 2019 Outstanding Research Achievement Award from the University of South Florida, the 2014 Nigel Walker Prize for Outstanding PhD Research from the University of Cambridge and the 2013 Excellence in Law Enforcement Research Award from the International Association of Chiefs of Police.

    Edelyn Verona is a professor in the Department of Psychology, with a courtesy appointment in the Department of Criminology, at the University of South Florida (USF) and co-director of the Center for Justice Research & Policy. She has authored over 90 peer-reviewed journal articles in high impact journals such as Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Law & Human Behavior, Psychology of Violence, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, and American Journal of Psychiatry; and has served as PI on several projects funded by National Institute of Mental Health, National Institute of Drug Abuse, and National Institute of Justice. She received the Early Career Award from the Society for the Scientific Study of Psychopathy (2011), a Mid-Career Research Award at the University of Illinois (2013), and Excellence in Research Award from USF (2020). She is also a fellow of the Association for Psychological Science. Her research program is in the area of psychology and crime and application of science to help reduce violence and recidivism. Her early work considered biological (e.g., genes, neurophysiology) and psychosocial factors (e.g., stress, early adversity) involved in the development and maintenance of problems of externalizing, and current on-going work focuses on pathways to incarceration, reentry, and intersections between mental health and criminal justice system involvement.

    “Profs. Verona and Fox have created a volume which deftly connects theory, research evidence and the implications for crime policy. This is the rare handbook that will find a home on the shelves of academics, applied researchers and practitioners alike.”

    Thomas Loughran, Professor of Sociology, Criminology, and Public Policy at Penn State University & Co-Lead Editor of Criminology

    “Verona and Fox’s volume helps justice practitioners meet the challenge of evidence-based crime policy by providing much-needed actionable translations of high-quality scientific research that are useable and accessible.” 

    Cynthia Lum, University Professor of Criminology, Law and Society at George Mason University, Director of the Center for Evidence-Based Crime Policy, & Co-Editor in Chief of Criminology and Public Policy


    “Criminal justice policy should be driven by evidence and analysis rather than speculation and hunches. This Handbook is an invaluable resource to make our system more effective and our communities safer.”

    Andrew Warren, State Attorney for Florida’s 13th Judicial Circuit