Safer Seas: Systematic Accident Prevention, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Safer Seas

Systematic Accident Prevention, 1st Edition

By Koji Fukuoka

CRC Press

264 pages | 5 Color Illus. | 65 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2019-07-09
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Marine accidents can occur at any time and everywhere in the world, resulting in loss of life, property, environment and reputation of the companies involved. Preventing accidents and establishing a safer world without accidents is an important agenda for the maritime industry. Since the enforcement of the International Safety Management Code in 1998, companies have taken various kinds of measures to prevent accidents. Unfortunately, measures have been undertaken in a disorganized manner, and have not been effective. Experts of risk management, the safety management system, and accident models have each undertaken accident preventive measures within the scope of their specific fields, but have not looked beyond the realm of their own fields.

This book discusses systematic accident prevention by integrating multi-disciplinary expertise based on academic research, the quality management system which has already proved its effectiveness in other fields, and findings of the author’s research. In systematic accident prevention, the weaknesses of a system within which accidents and incidents have occurred are viewed by combining scientific accident investigation data based on the International Maritime Organization model and the accident model. The nature of every type of marine accident, such as collisions, groundings, occupational casualties, etc., are derived by combining the accident model and statistical data. System weaknesses are rectified by the risk reduction method of risk management, and the rectified performance is incorporated in improvement in the system by the PDCA cycle, which is the core of the Safety Management System. We can see the weakness in the system and reduce the number of accidents and incidents while utilizing limited resources optimally to prevent accidents and incidents.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents:

History of Marine Accidents, Accident Investigation and Prevention

Prior to the loss of the Titanic

The Titanic

SOLAS Convention

Accidents and international efforts

The Herald of Free Enterprise and Exxon Valdez disaster

Shift from hardware to human factors issues

Implementation of safety management system

Development of comprehensive accident investigation

The Costa Concordia disaster

Similar accidents and insights

The number of accidents decreased?


Mechanism of Accident Occurrence

Concept of hazard and accident

Effect of a layer of defense

Situation of defenses in-depth and accidents

Human factors and accidents


Accident Model

Background surrounding accidents

Historical background of accident model

Problems on each accident model

Characteristics of each industry

Accident model applicable to each industry


Contributing Factors of Accident Occurrence


Central liveware




Liveware-peripheral liveware


Preparation for Accident Investigation


The human error

Risk management

ISM Code

Core of quality management system

Contents of ISM Code

Implication of the PDCA cycle in an accident


On-site investigation


Health and safety


Assessing the evidence


Analysis Methods


Analysis process

Event and Contributory Factors Charts

Guidelines to produce ECFC

Construction of a marine accident investigation report


Visualization of Weakness in the System




Latent conditions

How to find a hole at a real accident

Holes and latent conditions

Abstract generalizations (general characteristics of accidents)

Unresolved issues on the SCM

The SCM in maritime industry


Statistical science and characteristics of each types of accidents


Quantification of the SHEL element

Relationship between the hole location and the number of hole occurrence

Quantification accident model

Limitations of the study


Convergence of accident models


Summary of the sample accident

Analytical method

Limitations of analysis


Convergence of different type of model


Rectification of the weakness and improvement of the system


Principles of the systematic accident prevention

Process of systematic accident prevention

Difference between an accident and an incident



About the Author

Dr. Koji Fukuoka has engaged in safety, security and risk management for about 33 years. He graduatedg from Kagoshima University with a Bachelor of Science of Fisheries in 1981. Since then, he has accomplished the core of safety management system as creation of business continuity plans (BCP), education and training of emergency situations, search and rescue operations during accidents, accident investigations, creation of accident preventive measures through his tenures of Japan Coast Guard, Japan Transport Safety Board (JTSB), International Registries Far East Ltd, Mandarin Oriental Tokyo and the other maritime companies.

During the tenure of the JTSB (from 2009 to 2016), Dr. Fukuoka produced many marine accident reports, including very serious marine accidents, as an investigator-in-charge, studied "Fundamentals of accident investigation" at the Cranfield University, the United Kingdom, in 2011, designated as an analyst of Correspondence group in Sub-Committee on Implementation of IMO Instruments, trained government administrators of the Philippines on national training course on Marine Casualty and Incident Investigation as the IMO consultant in 2014.

Furthermore, he studied risk management, human factors, safety and quality management system, accident investigation and analysis, ISO, multivariate analysis, accident models and so forth to reduce the number of marine accidents at the Graduate School of Maritime Sciences, Kobe University, and received a Ph.D. in Maritime Science and Technology in 2016.

He has produced the e-learning materials on "Fundamentals on accident investigation" and "Systematic approach on accident prevention" in cooperation with the International Maritime Safety Security Environment Academy (IMSSEA in Genova, Italy) in 2017 and is designated as a lecturer from IMSSEA, and a research fellowship from the Ohara Memorial Institute for Science of Labour (Tokyo, Japan).

As an accident investigator at Japan Transport Safety Board, Dr. Koji Fukuoka has conducted numerous accident investigations and analyses. He was an IMO consultant for the IMO Model Course: Safety Investigation into Marine Casualties and Marine Incidents. He has worked on accident occurrence mechanism and prevention and developed new accident models, and published several articles on accident prevention. Dr. Koji Fukuoka has a doctorate from the Graduate School of Kobe University. He is currently the Manager of the Occupational Health and Safety Section and a Crisis Management Specialist at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University in Okinawa, Japan.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / General
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Industrial Health & Safety