Sandy Beaches as Endangered Ecosystems
Environmental Problems and Possible Assessment and Management Solutions
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Sandy beaches are the most abundant coastal environment worldwide, and have an undeniable and unique ecological value. Presently, however, these environments are also one of the most endangered ecosystems, namely due to the influence of several human activities and to the rise of the sea level, aggravated by the ongoing global climatic changes. In Sandy Beaches as Endangered Ecosystems, contributing authors from around the world highlight the environmental problems that endanger these delicate systems worldwide, and point out management and conservation strategies, with case studies where environmental disturbances were assessed and monitored.
Table of Contents
Introduction: sandy beaches as ecosystems – what do we know?
1. The abiotic environment.
2. Biological communities of the supralittoral and intertidal zones.
3. Biological communities of the surf zone.
Goods and services provided by sandy beaches and their economic relevance.
4. Ecosystem services.
5. Urbanization of the coastal areas.
6. Exploring the Sun and the Sea – touristic and recreational activities.
7. Exploring the biological resources of the beach.
Monitoring and assessment of environmental disturbances in sandy beach habitats.
8. Case studies approaching impacts derived from human activities.
9. Case studies approaching impacts derived from global climatic changes.
10. Case studies approaching impacts derived from other natural events.
Management and conservation strategies – which are the possible solutions?
11. Environmental values of sandy beach ecosystems.
12. Physical metrics.
13. Biological metrics.
14. Ecological metrics.
Sílvia C. Gonçalves is a Biologist, specialized in Marine Ecology, with a PhD in Biology obtained at the University of Coimbra, in 2007. Presently, she is a Senior Researcher at MARE - Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre and a Coordinating Professor at the School of Tourism and Maritime Technology (ESTM), of the Polytechnic Institute of Leiria (IPL, Portugal), lecturing mainly in the fields of ecology, biological diversity and marine environment. Her research is focused on Marine Biology and Ecology, particularly in coastal ecosystems and centralized in the following research lines: 1) bio-ecology of populations of key invertebrate species on sandy beaches and study of their potential as ecological indicators of human impacts; 2) structure and function of macrobenthic communities; 3) monitoring and evaluation of environmental quality in coastal ecosystems, especially on sandy beaches and coastal lagoons; 4) study of the bioremediation capacity of trace metals by halophyte plants in coastal lagoons; 5) techniques for cultivation, maintenance and reproduction of polychaetes, sea urchins and fish in aquaculture.Her scientific work includes: 1 international book, 5 chapters in international books, 16 publications in international scientific periodicals with referee, 17 publications in international congresses with referee, 12 oral presentations and 32 presentations in poster on international scientific meetings and the authorship of 1 documentary of scientific divulgation about marine organisms living in coastal areas.Sílvia C. Gonçalves is also Referee of 18 international scientific periodicals from recognized publishers (e.g. Elsevier, Springer Verlag, Taylor & Francis) and Review Editor on the specialized section Marine Biotechnology, of the journals Frontiers in Marine Science and Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology. She has been distinguished with the award "Outstanding Contribution in Reviewing" by the scientific periodicals Aquatic Botany (Elsevier, in 2013 and 2015) and Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety (Elsevier, in 2017).
Susana Margarida de Freitas Ferreira is a Portuguese researcher, with a PhD in Biology (specialization in Ecology) from the University of Coimbra (Portugal), in 2005. She is currently an Adjunct Professor at the Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, a Senior Researcher at MARE - Center for Marine and Environmental Sciences (ESTM-IPL) and a Collaborator at CEF - Center for Functional Ecology (University of Coimbra). Her scientific activity has been in the areas of Ecology, Biotechnology and Aquaculture. The domain of its specialization is related to the investigation of biological and ecological processes in aquatic ecosystems: 1) environmental impact studies, with emphasis on eutrophication processes, 2) population dynamics, biology and secondary production of benthic organisms; 3) community structure and functioning of coastal systems; 4) influence of trematode parasites on the population dynamics, biology and secondary production of crustaceans and molluscs. She is currently developing research on: 1) functioning and structure of biological communities; 2) evaluation of metals in coastal habitats; 4) stock assessment of aquatic organisms and their use in aquaculture and biotechnology. She is authorized to "perform procedures on animals", by the General Directorate of Food and Veterinary, pursuant to paragraph 5, article 31 of Decree-Law no. 113/2013 of August 7, according to Directive 2010/63/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of September 22. As such, it is a Member of the ORBEA - Body Responsible for the Animal Welfare of MARE-IPLeiria. Her scientific production counts on: the supervision of 14 MSc theses; the coordination of 3 national research projects, the participation as an effective member in 3 national projects and as a collaborator in 1 international project, 5 national projects, 1 project of scientific divulgation, plus 1 project of rendering services; the publication of 1 book, 4 chapters in books, 20 articles in international journals with scientific referee, 15 abstracts in international congress proceedings with scientific referee, 1 abstract in national congress proceedings; 22 oral communications and 39 panel communications; the direction and authorship of 1 documentary on marine life in coastal areas.