The papers given by the Soviet Delegation to the Second International Congress of the History of Science and Technology in London in 1931, headed by N. I. Bukharin, exerted a profound influence on Western historiography of science. Perhaps the most influential contribution was that of Hessen, who made a long and classical statement of Marxist historiography, taking Isaac Newton as his example. The collection, which appeared in Britain at the height of the Depression, fostered an acute social awareness and a heated debate among many working scientists. Accredited by some as "the starting point of a new evaluation of the history of science", the book reflects the huge social and economic divide between Socialism and Capitalism present at the time of publication, and its influence on intellectual culture and scientific advancement.
Foreword to the 1971 edition; Introduction; 1. Theory and Practice from the Standpoint of Dialectical Materialism N. I. Bukharin 2. Physics and Technology A. F. Joffe 3. Relations of Science, Technology, and Economics under Capitalism and In the Soviet Union M. Rubinstein 4. The "Physical" and "Biological" in the Process of Organic Evolution B. Zavadosvsky 5. Dynamic and Statistical Regularity in Physics and Biology E. Colman 6. The Problem of the Origin of the World’s Agriculture in the Light of the Latest Investigations N. I. Vavilov 7. The Work of Faraday and Modern Developments in the Application of Electrical Energy W. Th. Mitkewich 8. Electrification as the Basis of Technical Reconstruction in the Soviet Union M. Rubinstein 9. The Social and Economic Roots of Newton’s ‘Principa’ B. Hessen 10. The Present Crisis in the Mathematical Sciences and General Outline for their Reconstruction E. Colman 11. Short Communication on the Unpublished Writings of Karl Marx Dealing with the Mathematics, the Natural Sciences, Technology, and the History of These Subjects E. Colman
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