Seed inoculation is the practice of effectively introducing a high number of nitrogen-fixing bacteria (Rhizobium or Bradyrhizobium) on the surface of legume seeds prior to planting. The bacteria penetrates the root, resulting in the formation of root nodules that fix nitrogen from the air, and make it readily available to the plant. This book describes the need, the development and the use of rhizobia, and how this process may be reproduced successfully around the world, especially in underdeveloped agricultural countries.
Table of Contents
CHAPTER ONE. World Importance Gradually Being Realised. Selection, Certification and Distribution of Rhizobium. International Inoculation Standards. Strains. Inoculant Quality. An Acceptable Standard for Legume Inoculants. Inoculated & coatedseed standards. Inoculant Carriers. Economics of Inoculant Use. Strains and Cross Inoculation Groups. Manufacture of Legume Plant Inoculants. ICMP [International collection of Micro-Organisms from Plants]. Mother Culture Supply in New Zealand. The Current NZ Rhizobia Strains Recommendation. A Practical Guide to Manufacture of Commercial Inoculant. Quality Control – Measuring Rhizobium Viability. Enumeration of Viable Rhizobia in Legume Inoculants and Inoculated Coated Seed. Assessment of Nodulation Potential – Seedling Tube Method. Most Probable Number (MPN) Testing Method. Materials and Equipment Required for MPN (Plant Infection). Testing. CHAPTER TWO. Production of Coated Seed in New Zealand. Commercial Considerations. Uncultivated Pastoral Agriculture. Planning Required. Germination of Coated Seed. Fertilisers, Mixing and Avoiding Damage. Aerial Considerations. "The Wizard" of Aerial Oversowing. Formula for Successful Surface Sowing of Seed. A Timely Note About Soil and Fertilisers. Responsibilities of Government. Ionisation (Covalent bonding) and Phosphate "Fixation". Possibilities and Limitations of "Pasture Pellets". Materials and Test Services Essential for Development. Good Quality Inoculant Manufacturers Need Encouragement. Coated Seed Use. Mixing Intelligently. On Farm Mixing. Mix Accurately. Aerial Safety. Warmer Climates. Developing Nations Must Make a Start. The Facts about Oversowing Seed. Clovers: Controversy, Confusion & the Danger of Misleading Research. Seed Quantities and Varieties for Oversowing. The "Bottom line". Best Research Approach. Manufacturers Need Laboratory Quality Control. The absolute reality of clover inoculation, coatings, Oversowing benefits, seeding rates and costs. Research results. Further Evidence. Manufacturing variations. The Actual Cost. "This is truly the "bottom line". Lucerne[Medicago sativa] [Alf alfa]. CHAPTER THREE. Grasses In Hill And High Country Oversowing. Coating Effects. Grass seed germination. Bare seed v coated. Variable Results Reported from Miscellaneous Sources. Grass Seed Oversowing. [eg dropped on surface of the ground]. Field Research. Occurrence of grass plants two years from surface sowing. Actual Cost. Ratio of actual cost of seed treatment. Additives. Pasture Pellets. Grass species. CHAPTER FOUR. Definitions. Introduction. Precision drilling demands precision care. Effect of Pelleting on Germination and Establishment. Precision Drills. Pellet Properties. Modern Pellet Contents. Seed Varieties Pelleted. Pellet Variations. Sowing Rates at specific spacings. Metric Placement Table - NUMBER of SEEDS PER HECTARE. Calculation Guide. Row width. Seed Bed Conditions. Conclusion. CHAPTER FIVE. Coating & Pelleting Materials. Adhesives, Principles. Formulae. Machinery. Procedure. Factory Production. Staff. Packaging. Seed Industry. Sale & Distribution. Shipping, Storage. Costing and Invoicing. CHAPTER SIX. Food Growth Considerations for a Hungry, Desperate, Urgent World. Recent Developments and New Techniques. World Expansion. The Future. CHAPTER SEVEN. Scientific and Industrial Secrecy. This Chapter Important for All Technicians - Seed Processing Workers included. It is about Care Required working in Pioneering Industries. Dangers of Excessive Restraint in Employment contracts. Hazards to Qualified Staff who join Secretive Ventures. Importance of Technology Transfer to Under-Developed Nations – vital, urgent & more ethical than excessive confidentiality. Essential Remuneration Compensation for Loss of Service Freedom and Opportunity. Employment contract manipulation – an actual outcome. Some Advice to Technicians – not just in Seed Processing.
Gerald M. Bennett, John Lloyd