Seismic Design Aids for Nonlinear Pushover Analysis of Reinforced Concrete and Steel Bridges  book cover
1st Edition

Seismic Design Aids for Nonlinear Pushover Analysis of Reinforced Concrete and Steel Bridges

ISBN 9781138114623
Published June 7, 2017 by CRC Press
400 Pages 177 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Nonlinear static monotonic (pushover) analysis has become a common practice in performance-based bridge seismic design. The popularity of pushover analysis is due to its ability to identify the failure modes and the design limit states of bridge piers and to provide the progressive collapse sequence of damaged bridges when subjected to major earthquakes. Seismic Design Aids for Nonlinear Pushover Analysis of Reinforced Concrete and Steel Bridges fills the need for a complete reference on pushover analysis for practicing engineers.

This technical reference covers the pushover analysis of reinforced concrete and steel bridges with confined and unconfined concrete column members of either circular or rectangular cross sections as well as steel members of standard shapes. It provides step-by-step procedures for pushover analysis with various nonlinear member stiffness formulations, including:

  • Finite segment–finite string (FSFS)
  • Finite segment–moment curvature (FSMC)
  • Axial load–moment interaction (PM)
  • Constant moment ratio (CMR)
  • Plastic hinge length (PHL)

Ranging from the simplest to the most sophisticated, the methods are suitable for engineers with varying levels of experience in nonlinear structural analysis.

The authors also provide a downloadable computer program, INSTRUCT (INelastic STRUCTural Analysis of Reinforced-Concrete and Steel Structures), that allows readers to perform their own pushover analyses. Numerous real-world examples demonstrate the accuracy of analytical prediction by comparing numerical results with full- or large-scale test results. A useful reference for researchers and engineers working in structural engineering, this book also offers an organized collection of nonlinear pushover analysis applications for students.

Table of Contents

Overview of Seismic Design of Highway Bridges in the United States
AASHTO Bridge Seismic Design Philosophy
Direct Displacement-Based Design Procedures

Pushover Analysis Applications
Displacement Capacity Evaluation for the Seismic Design of New Bridges
Performance Level Verification for New Bridges Designed by DDBD
Capacity/Demand Ratios for the Seismic Evaluation of Existing Bridges
Quantitative Bridge System Redundancy Evaluation
Moment–Curvature Curves and Axial Load–Moment Interaction Curves
Other Applications

Nonlinear Pushover Analysis Procedure
SOL01—Elastic Static Analysis
SOL04—Nonlinear Static Pushover (Cyclic or Monotonic) Analysis
Material Library
Element Library
Material-Element Cross Reference

Nonlinear Bending Stiffness Matrix Formulations
Bilinear Interaction Axial Load–Moment Method
Plastic Hinge Length Method
Constant Moment Ratio Method
Finite Segment–Finite String Method
Finite Segment–Moment Curvature Method
Concrete Column Failure Modes
Bilinear Moment–Curvature Curves
Column Axial Load–Moment Interaction
Column Axial Load–Plastic Curvature Capacity Curve

Analytical Formulation for Structures
Joint Definition and Degrees of Freedom
Inelastic IE3DBEAM Element
Finite-Segment Element
Brace Element
Plate Element
Unbalanced Forces

Input Data for INSTRUCT Program
Notes on Input
STRUCTURE—Define the Structural Model
SOL01—Elastic Static Solution
SOL04—Incremental Static (Pushover) Solution
BUG—Set Bug Options
READ—Read Plot Files
NOECHO—Inhibit Input Echo
DUMP—Print Memory
RELEASE—Release Memory
STOP—Terminate Execution

Numerical Examples
Structural Limit State Indicators
Member Yield Indicators
Numerical Examples

Appendix A: Stiffness Matrix Formulation for Bilinear PM Method
Appendix B: Stiffness Matrix Formulation for Finite Segment
Appendix C: Unbalanced Forces of a Finite Segment
Appendix D: Nonlinear Incremental Solution Algorithms
Appendix E: Plastic Curvature Capacities and Neutral Axis Depth in Columns
Appendix F: Elastic and Inelastic Time History Analysis
Appendix G: Elastic and Inelastic Response Spectra
Appendix H: Response Spectrum Analysis of Multiple-dof System
Appendix I: Polynomial Curve Fitting
Appendix J: Plate Element Stiffness Matrix


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Jeffrey Ger, PhD, PE, is the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Division Bridge Engineer in Florida, Puerto Rico, and U.S. Virgin Islands. His research experience has been in the field of earthquake engineering, nonlinear structural response, and building and highway bridge design. He has published more than 40 technical papers in structural engineering. Dr. Ger received the U.S. Secretary of Transportation’s Team Award in 2004 "for providing extraordinary transportation services to move food, water and shelter materials to relieve the pain and suffering by millions of victims of the 2004 Hurricanes." He provided critical support in the wake of Florida’s 2004 hurricanes, completing an emergency interstate bridge repair project 26 days ahead of schedule. In 2006, he received the FHWA Bridge Leadership Council’s Excellent Award, recognizing his outstanding customer service in carrying out the bridge program in Florida. He received the FHWA Engineer of the Year Award and an award from the National Society of Professional Engineers in 2007, and in 2008 received the Civil Engineering Academy Award from the Department of Civil Engineering at the University of Missouri-Rolla. Dr. Ger was appointed as one of the seven members of the U.S. Transportation Infrastructure Reconnaissance Team that traveled to Chile in April 2010 to assess the bridge damage condition due to the February 27, 2010, Chile earthquake.

Franklin Y. Cheng, PhD, PE, is a distinguished member (formerly honorary) of ASCE; a member of the Academy of Civil Engineers, Missouri University of Science and Technology (MST); and Curators’ Professor Emeritus of Civil Engineering at MST. He is one of the pioneers in allying computing expertise to large, complex, seismic-resistant structures. Dr. Cheng has received four honorary professorships abroad and chaired seven of his 24 National Science Foundation (NSF) delegations to various countries for research and development cooperation. He has served as either chairman or member of 37 professional societies and committees. Dr. Cheng has served as a consultant for Martin Marietta Energy Systems Inc., Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Martin & Huang International, among others. The author, coauthor, or editor of 26 books and over 250 publications, Dr. Cheng is the recipient of numerous honors, including the MSM-UMR Alumni Merit, ASCE State-of-the-Art (twice), the Faculty Excellence, and the Halliburton Excellence awards. In 2007, he was elected as the 565th honorary member of ASCE since 1852. Dr. Cheng has numerous publications to his credit, the most recent being Structural Optimization: Dynamic and Seismic Applications, Smart Structures: Innovative Systems for Seismic Response Control, and Matrix Analysis of Structural Dynamic: Applications and Earthquake Engineering.