The second edition of Shipboard Electrical Power Systems addresses new developments in this rapidly growing field. Focusing on the industry trend towards electric propulsion for cruise, navy and commercial ships, the book aids new or experienced engineers in mastering the cutting-edge technologies required for power system design, control, protection, and economic use of power.
Covering the latest emission standards on ships, and the clean power technologies necessary to meet such stringent regulations, the book compiles essential information on power system design, analysis and operation, uniquely bringing all three together under one cover. Beginning by covering power system basics, the book goes on to detail power generation, electrical machines and batteries, with brand new chapters on electric propulsion, shipboard emission regulations and clean power technologies. Updated throughout to reflect this rapidly changing field, the second edition clearly explains complicated electrical concepts using mechanical and hydraulic analogies to aid marine engineers in understanding difficult elements of the field. The book is an indispensable resource for well-rounded engineering students and professional engineers.
This textbook is essential reading for students of marine engineering, electrical power systems and electrical engineering, alongside engineers working on commercial and navy ships, on ports, on land and offshore rigs.
Table of Contents
1 AC Power Fundamentals 1.1 Current Voltage Power and Energy 1.2 Alternating Current 1.2.1 RMS Value and Average Power 1.2.2 Polarity Marking in AC 1.3AC Phasor 1.3.1 Operator j for 90° Phase Shift 1.3.2Three Ways of Writing Phasors 1.3.3 Phasor Form Conversion 1.4 Phasor Algebra Review 1.5 Single-Phase AC Power Circuit 1.5.1Series R-L-C Circuit 1.5.2 Impedance Triangle 1.5.3 Circuit Laws and Theorems 1.6 AC Power in Complex Form 1.7Reactive Power 1.8 Three-Phase AC Power System 1.8.1 Balanced Y- and Δ-Connected Systems 1.8.2 Y-Δ Equivalent Impedance Conversion Further Reading 2 Shipboard Power System Architectures 2.1 Types of Ship Drives 2.2Electrical Design Tasks 2.3 Electrical Load Analysis 2.3.1 Load Factor 2.3.2 Load Table Compilation 2.4Power System Configurations 2.4.1 Basic Conventional Ship 2.4.2 Large Cargo Ship 2.4.3 Large Cruise Ship 2.4.4Ring Bus in Navy Ship 2.4.5 ABS-R2 Redundancy Class of Ship 2.4.6 ABS-R2S Redundancy with Separation 2.4.7ABS-R2S+ with Two-Winding Propulsion Motors 2.4.8 Clean Power Bus for Harmonic-Sensitive Loads 2.4.9 Emergency Generator Engine Starting System 2.5 Cold Ironing/Shore Power 2.6 Efficiency and Reliability of Chain 2.7 Shipboard Circuit Designation 2.8 Ship Simulator 2.9 Systems of Units Further Reading Chapter 3 Common Aspects of Power Equipment 3.1 Faraday’s Law and Coil Voltage Equation 3.2Mechanical Force and Torque 3.3Electrical Equivalent of Newton’s Third Law 3.4 Power Losses in Electrical Machine 3.5 Maximum Efficiency Operating Point 3.6 Thevenin Equivalent Source Model 3.7 Voltage Drop and Regulation 3.8 Load Sharing among Sources 3.8.1 Static Sources in Parallel 3.8.2 Load Adjustment 3.9 Power Rating of Equipment 3.9.1 Temperature Rise under Load 3.9.2 Service Life under Overload 3.10 Temperature Effect on Resistance Further Reading 4 AC Generator 4.1 Terminal Performance 4.2 Electrical Model 4.3 Electrical Power Output 4.3.1 Field Excitation Effect 4.3.2 Power Capability Limits 4.3.3 Round and Salient Pole Rotors 4.4 Transient Stability Limit 4.5 Equal Area Criteria of Transient Stability 4.6 Speed and Frequency Regulations 4.7 Load Sharing among AC Generators 4.8 Isosynchronous Generator 4.9 Excitation Methods 4.10 Short Circuit Ratio 4.11 Automatic Voltage Regulator Further Reading 5 AC and DC Motors 5.1 Induction Motor 5.1.1 Performance Characteristics 5.1.2 Starting Inrush kVA Code 5.1.3Torque–Speed Characteristic Matching 5.1.4 Motor Control Center 5.1.5Performance at Different Frequency and Voltage 5.2 Synchronous Motor 5.3 Motor HP and Line Current 5.4 Dual-Use Motors 5.5 Unbalanced Voltage Effect 5.6 DC Motor 5.7 Universal (Series) Motor AC or DC 5.8 Special Motors for Ship Propulsion 5.9 Torque versus Speed Comparison Further Reading 6 Transformer 6.1 Transformer Categories 6.2Types of Transformers 6.3 Selection of kVA Rating 6.4 Transformer Cooling Classes 6.5 Three-Phase Transformer Connections 6.6 Full-Δ and Open-Δ Connections 6.7 Magnetizing Inrush Current 6.8 Single-Line Diagram Model 6.9 Three-Winding Transformer 6.10Percent and Per Unit Systems 6.11 Equivalent Impedance at Different Voltage 6.12 Continuous Equivalent Circuit through Transformer 6.13 Influence of Transformer Impedance Further Reading 7 Power Cable 7.1 Conductor Gage 7.2 Cable Insulation 7.3 Conductor Ampacity 7.4 Cable Electrical Model 7.5 Skin and Proximity Effects 7.6 Cable Design 7.7 Marine and Special Cables 7.8 Cable Routing and Installation Further Reading Chapter 8 Power Distribution 8.1 Typical Distribution Scheme 8.2 Grounded and Ungrounded Systems 8.3 Ground Fault Detection Schemes 8.4 Distribution Feeder Voltage Drop 8.4.1 Voltage Drop During Motor Starting 8.4.2 Voltage Boost by Capacitors 8.4.3 System Voltage Drop Analysis 8.5 Bus Bars Electrical Parameters 8.6 High-Frequency Distribution 8.7 Switchboard and Switchgear 8.7.1 Automatic Bus Transfer 8.7.2 Disconnect Switch Further Reading 9 Fault Current Analysis 9.1 Types and Frequency of Faults 9.2 Fault Analysis Model 9.3 Asymmetrical Fault Transient 9.3.1 Simple Physical Explanation 9.3.2 Rigorous Mathematical Analysis 9.4 Fault Current Offset Factor 9.5 Fault Current Magnitude 9.5.1 Symmetrical Fault Current 9.5.2 Asymmetrical Fault Current 9.5.3 Transient and Subtransient Reactance 9.5.4 Generator Terminal Fault Current 9.5.5 Transformer Terminal Fault Current 9.6 Motor Contribution to Fault Current 9.7 Current Limiting Series Reactor 9.8 Unsymmetrical Faults 9.9 Circuit Breaker Selection Simplified Further Reading Chapter 10 System Protection 10.1 Fuse 10.1.1 Fuse Selection 10.1.2 Types of Fuse 10.2 Overload Protection 10.3 Electromechanical Relay 10.4 Circuit Breaker 10.4.1 Types of Circuit Breaker 10.4.2 Circuit Breaker Selection 10.5 Differential Protection of Generator 10.6 Differential Protection of Bus and Feeders 10.7 Ground Fault Current Interrupter 10.8 Transformer Protection 10.9 Motor Branch Circuit Protection 10.10 Lightning and Switching Voltage Protection 10.11 Surge Protection for Small Sensitive Loads 10.12 Protection Coordination 10.13 Health Monitoring 10.14 Arc Flash Analysis Further Reading 11 Economic Use of Power 11.1 Economic Analysis 11.1.1 Cash Flow with Borrowed Capital 11.1.2 Payback of Self-Financed Capital 11.2 Power Loss Capitalization 11.3 High Efficiency Motor 11.4 Power Factor Improvement 11.4.1 Capacitor Size Determination 11.4.2 Parallel Resonance with Source 11.4.3 Safety with Capacitors 11.4.4 Difference between PF and Efficiency 11.5 Energy Storage during Night 11.6 Variable Speed Motor Drives AC and DC 11.7 Regenerative Braking 11.7.1 Induction Motor Torque versus Speed Curve 11.7.2 Induction Motor Braking 11.7.3 DC Motor Braking 11.7.4 New York and Oslo Metro Trains Further Reading 12 Electrochemical Battery 12.1 Major Rechargeable Batteries 12.1.1 Lead Acid 12.1.2 Nickel Cadmium 12.1.3 Nickel Metal Hydride 12.1.4 Lithium Ion 12.1.5 Lithium Polymer 12.1.6 Sodium Battery 12.2 Electrical Circuit Model 12.3 Performance Characteristics 12.3.1 Charge/Discharge Voltages 12.3.2 C/D Ratio (Charge Efficiency) 12.3.3 Round Trip Energy Efficiency 12.3.4 Self-Discharge and Trickle-Charge 12.3.5 Memory Effect in NiCd 12.3.6 Temperature Effects 12.4 Battery Life 12.5 Battery Types Compared 12.6 More on the Lead-Acid Battery 12.7 Battery Design Process 12.8 Safety and Environment Further Reading 13 Electric Propulsion 13.1 State of Electric Propulsion 13.2 Types of Electric Propulsion Drive 13.2.1 Azimuth Z-drive 13.2.2 Azimuth Pod-drive 13.3 Propulsion Power System Configurations 13.3.1 Separate Electrical Propulsion Power 13.3.2 Integrated Electrical Propulsion Power 13.4 Advantages of Electric Propulsion 13.4.1 Advantages to Cruise and Navy Ships 13.4.2 Special Advantages to Navy Ships 13.5 AC vs. DC Power Option 13.6 Optimum Voltage Level 13.7 Propulsion Power Requirement 13.8 Ship Speed vs. Fuel Consumption 13.9 Hybrid Propulsion 13.9.1 Hybrid Tug Boat 13.9.2 Hybrid Ferry Further Reading 14 Ship Emission Regulations and Clean Power Technologies 14.1 Overview of Ship Emissions 14.2 Key Marine Air Pollutants 14.3 Marine Emission Regulations 14.4 Means of Emission Reductions 14.4.1 Low Sulfur Fuel Switching 14.4.2 Speed Reduction (Slow Steaming) 14.4.3 Using Shore Power at Ports (Cold Ironing) 14.4.4 Using Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) 14.4.5 Using Snubbers 14.5 Clean Power Technologies 14.5.1 Fuel Cell Power 14.5.2 Lithium Ion Batteries 14.5.3 Solar Photovoltaics (misprinted as 14.7 in text by error) 14.5.4 Wind Power Further Reading 15 Marine Industry Standards 15.1 Standard-Issuing Organizations 15.2 Classification Societies 15.3 IEEE Standtrad-45 15.4 Code of Federal Regulations 15.5 Military Standards-1399 Further Reading Appendix A: Symmetrical Components Appendix B: Operating Ships Power System Data Example (please add “Example” in Appendix Title in the Text) Index
Mukund R. Patel, Ph.D., P.E., is a professor of engineering at the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy in Kings Point, New York, USA, and has served as a 3M McKnight Distinguished Visiting Professor at the University of Minnesota, Duluth. He has over 50 years of hands-on involvement in research, development, and design of the state-of-the-art electrical power equipment and systems. He has held positions as principal engineer at General Electric, fellow engineer at the Westinghouse Research & Development Center, senior staff engineer at Lockheed Martin Corporation, and development manager at Bharat Bijlee (Siemens) Limited. He has been teaching short courses in electrical power systems for American Society of Naval Engineers since 2012.
Dr. Patel obtained his Ph.D. degree in Electric Power Engineering from the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, and his M.S. in Engineering Management from the University of Pittsburgh. He also received an M.E. in Electrical Machine Design from Gujarat University, and a B.E. from Sardar University, India.
Tanuj Khandelwal, MSEE is the Chief Technology Officer and Senior Principal Electrical Engineer at ETAP - Operation Technology, Inc. in Irvine, California, USA. He has about 20 years of involvement in engineering system analysis and design of ETAP state-of-the-art electrical power system analysis software. Mr. Khandelwal obtained his M.S. in Electrical Engineering from California State University, Long Beach and his Bachelor of Engineering in Electronics and Telecommunications from Bombay University, India.