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Silicon Earth
Introduction to Microelectronics and Nanotechnology, Second Edition





ISBN 9781498708258
Published December 7, 2015 by CRC Press
557 Color Illustrations

 
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Book Description

We are in the center of the most life-changing technological revolution the Earth has ever known. In little more than 65 years, an eye-blink in human history, a single technological invention has launched the proverbial thousand ships, producing the most sweeping and pervasive set of changes ever to wash over humankind; changes that are reshaping the very core of human existence, on a global scale, at a relentlessly accelerating pace. And we are just at the very beginning.

Silicon Earth: Introduction to Microelectronics and Nanotechnology introduces readers with little or no technical background to the marvels of microelectronics and nanotechnology, using straightforward language, an intuitive approach, minimal math, and lots of pictures. The general scientific and engineering underpinnings of microelectronics and nanotechnology are described, as well as how this new technological revolution is transforming a broad array of interdisciplinary fields, and civilization as a whole. Special "widget deconstruction" chapters address the inner workings of ubiquitous micro/nano-enabled pieces of technology, such as smartphones, flash drives, and digital cameras.

Completely updated and upgraded to full color, the Second Edition:

  • Includes new material on the design of electronic systems, the future of electronics, and the societal impact of micro/nanotechnology
  • Provides new widget deconstructions of cutting-edge tech gadgets like the GPS-enabled smartwatch
  • Adds end-of-chapter study questions and hundreds of new color photos

Silicon Earth: Introduction to Microelectronics and Nanotechnology, Second Edition is a pick-up-and-read-cover-to-cover book for those curious about the micro/nanoworld, as well as a classroom-tested, student-and-professor-approved text ideal for an undergraduate-level university course. Lecture slides, homework examples, a deconstruction project, and discussion threads are available via an author-maintained website.

Table of Contents

The Communications Revolution
The Big Picture
The Evolution of Human Communications
Doomsday Scenarios
Global Information Flow
Evolutionary Trends: Moore’s Law
Silicon: The Master Enabler
Micro/Nanoelectronics at the State of the Art: Nanoscale CMOS
A Parting Shot
Time Out: Gut Check on Your Comprehension
References and Notes

A Matter of Scale
The Tyranny of Numbers
"Seeing" versus "Imaging" the Infinitesimal
The Distance Scale of the Universe
The Micro/Nanoelectronics Distance Scale
The Time and Frequency Scales of Micro/Nanoelectronics
The Temperature and Energy Scales of Micro/Nanoelectronics
Seeing Is Believing?
Time Out: Gut Check on Your Comprehension
References and Notes

Innumerable Biographies: A Brief History of the Field
What History Can Teach Us
The Uniqueness of Microelectronics
The Shoulders We Stand On: Some Giants of Electrical Engineering
The Invention/Discovery of the Transistor
Newsflash!
How the West Was Won
The Integrated Circuit
Not Invented Here
The Rest of the Story
Time Out: Gut Check on Your Comprehension
References and Notes

Widget Deconstruction #1: Smartphone
With a Broad Brush
Nuts and Bolts
Where Are the Integrated Circuits and What Do They Do?
Time Out: Gut Check on Your Comprehension
References and Notes

Semiconductors: Lite!
What Are Semiconductors?
What Makes Semiconductors So Special?
Types of Semiconductors
Crystal Structure
Energy Bands
Electrons and Holes in Semiconductors
Doping
Drift and Diffusion Transport
Carrier Drift
Carrier Diffusion
Generation and Recombination
The Semiconductor Equations of State
Time Out: Gut Check on Your Comprehension
References

Widget Deconstruction #2: USB Flash Drive
With a Broad Brush
Nuts and Bolts
Hard Disk Drives
RAM
ROM
Flash Memory
Where Are Integrated Circuits and What Do They Do?
Time Out: Gut Check on Your Comprehension
References and Notes

Bricks and Mortar: Micro/Nanoelectronics Fabrication
The IC Fabrication Facility (aka "the Cleanroom")
Crystal Growth and Epitaxy
Semiconductor Crystals
Epitaxy
Doping: Diffusion, Implantation, and Annealing
Oxidation and Film Deposition
Etching and Polishing
Photolithography
Metalization and Interconnects
Building a Transistor
IC Packaging: Wirebonds, Cans, DIPs, and Flip-Chips
3D ICs, TSVs, and SoPs
Reliability
Time Out: Gut Check on Your Comprehension
References

Transistors: Lite!
The Semiconductor Device Menagerie
Why Are Transistors So Darn Useful?
Loss
Gain
The pn Junction
What Is It?
How Does It Work?
What Does It Do for You?
The BJT
What Is It?
How Does It Work?
What Does It Do for You?
The MOSFET
What Is It?
How Does It Work?
What Does It Do for You?
X-Men Transistors
HBTs
HFETs
Time Out: Gut Check on Your Comprehension
References and Notes

From Transistors to Circuits to Systems
Building Circuits and Systems from Transistors
IC Tape-Out: Machines Designing Machines
Software
Time Out: Gut Check on Your Comprehension
References

Microtools and Toys: MEMS, NEMS, and BioMEMS
Micro-Intuition and the Science of Miniaturization
MEMS Classifications
A Grab Bag of MEMS Toys
Micromachining Silicon
Bulk Micromachining
Surface Micromachining
Cool App #1: MEMS Accelerometers
Cool App #2: MEMS Micromirror Displays
Cool App #3: BioMEMS and Lab-on-a-Chip
So What Comes Next?
Time Out: Gut Check on Your Comprehension
References and Notes

Widget Deconstruction #3: GPS
With a Broad Brush
A Brief History of GPS
Nuts and Bolts
Where Are the Integrated Circuits and What Do They Do?
Time Out: Gut Check on Your Comprehension
References and Notes

Let There Be Light: The Bright World of Photonics
Let There Be Light!
Spectral Windows
Getting Light In and Out of Semiconductors
Optical Absorption
Optical Emission
Direct versus Indirect Bandgap Materials
Photodetectors and Solar Cells
Photodetectors
Solar Cells
CCD Imagers, CMOS Imagers, and the Digital Camera
CCD Imagers
CCD versus CMOS Imagers
LEDs, Laser Diodes, and Fiber Optics
LEDs
Semiconductor Laser Diodes
Optical Gain
Feedback
Laser Perks, Drawbacks, and Future Directions
Fiber Optics
CDs, DVDs, and Blu-Ray
Time Out: Gut Check on Your Comprehension
References and Notes

The Future of Electronics
Darwinian Evolution in Micro/Nanoelectronics, and the End of the Silicon Road
Carbon Engineering: Buckyballs, Nanotubes, and Graphene
Forsaking Group IV: Zinc Oxide and Black Phosphorus
Bend and Flex: The World of Organics
Ferroelectric Memory, Memristors, Phase Change Memory, and Spintronics
Quantum Computing
Time Out: Gut Check on Your Comprehension
References

The Nanoworld: Fact and Fiction
Nanotech
Say What You Mean and Mean What You Say: Nanotech Definitions
Emerging Nanoapps and Humans 2.0
Time Out: Gut Check on Your Comprehension
References and Notes

Societal Impact
The Internet
e-Addictions
Computer Gaming
Genomics
e-Education
Social Media
e-Politics
Environmental Impact
e-Books and Libraries
A Grab Bag of Issues
Time Out: Gut Check on Your Comprehension
References

Appendix A: Properties of Silicon

Appendix B: Some Basic Concepts from Physics and Electrical Engineering

Appendix C: A Grab-Bag Glossary of Useful Techno-Geek Terms and Acronyms

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Author(s)

Biography

John D. Cressler earned his BS from Georgia Tech in 1984 and his PhD from Columbia University in 1990. From 1984 to 1992, he was on the research staff at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, and from 1992 to 2002 he served on the faculty at Auburn University. An IEEE fellow, he joined the faculty at Georgia Tech in 2002, and is currently Schlumberger Chair Professor in Electronics in the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Dr. Cressler has published a number of nonfiction and historical fiction books. Together with his students, he has published more than 700 scientific papers. He has received the 2010 Class of 1940 W. Howard Ector Outstanding Teacher Award (Georgia Tech’s top teaching award), 2011 IEEE Leon Kirchmayer Graduate Teaching Award (the IEEE’s top graduate teaching award), and Class of 1934 Distinguished Professor Award (the highest honor Georgia Tech bestows on its faculty).

Reviews

"Silicon Earth tells one of the most compelling stories of our time; how the sand on the beach, a common plaything for children, is the building block for the advanced technological hardware that enriches our daily lives. Dr. John Cressler chronicles the advancements of the transistor from its humble beginnings to modern day, where it is arguably the single most important device in modern society. This text is filled with exciting and relevant examples of everyday technology and delves into their inner workings. The book is written more as a novel than a textbook and is engaging to the reader to learn not only about where we’ve been technologically, but also about where we might go."
—Joel Andrews, Ph.D., Garmin International

Praise for the Previous Edition

"In this unique book, Cressler, … displaying his immense and diverse knowledge, demystifies the overwhelming concepts of microelectronics. … Summing up: Recommended. Upper-division undergraduates through professionals; general readers."
—M.S. Roden, emeritus, California State University, Los Angeles, USA, from CHOICE, February 2010

"… provides a concise, easy-to-follow, step-by-step discussion of the evolutionary history of silicon-based electronics, microelectromechanical structures (MEMS), and nanotechnology, as well as their impact on our lives. … This book is a comprehensive yet thrilling and invigorating, simple-to-read text that is well on its way to becoming a classic. … The book reduces highly abstract, technical, and mathematical topics foundational to the frontiers of silicon into a thrilling tale of pioneering history with very simple mathematics in an easy-to-understand and readable style. Graphically decorated with pictures and stories from the greatest science fiction movies (e.g., Terminator and Fantastic Voyage), the book helps the reader visualize the fundamental principles of electrical engineering and nanotechnology."
—Mohammad Mojarradi and Benjamin Blalock, from IEEE Nanotechnology Magazine, September 2010