Subsurface investigation is the most important phase of any civil engineering construction or development activities. The geologic conditions can be extremely complex, variable, and subject to change with time; soil test borings and in-situ tests are employed to obtain subsoil information. Resistivity Imaging (RI) is a non-destructive, fast and cost-effective method of site investigation and soil characterization.
Site Investigation using Resistivity Imaging aims to summarize pertinent details of RI in site investigation for geotechnical and geo-environmental applications. It aims to bridge the gap that currently exists between the geotechnical/geo-environmental and geophysical engineering community. The geotechnical and geo-environmental engineers will be able to use annd understand geophysical data and utilize the information for their design.
- First comprehensive handbook aimed at engineers that summarises pertinent details of Resitivity Imaging (RI) in site investigation for geotechnical and geo-environmental applications.
- for geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineers, making it possible to interpret geophysical data and utilize the information for their design.
- explanining the advantages of RI over conventional site investigations: continuous image, large coverage, low cost, quick and easy data processing.
It will be a comprehensive handbook for the application of RI in geotechnical and geo-environmental site investigations.
Table of Contents
1.2 Current subsurface investigation methods
1.3 Limitations of the conventional methods
1.4 Electrical resistivity imaging method for site investigations
2 Background: electrical resistivity of geomaterials and measurement methods
2.1 General principle of electrical conductivity and resistivity
2.2 Electrical conduction in geomaterials
2.3 Measurement of electrical resistivity
2.4 Electrical resistivity inversion modeling
2.5 Electrical resistivity array methods
2.6 Resistivity imaging method
2.7 Advancement in RI technics: single channel vs multi-channel system
2.8 Roll-along survey
3 Geotechnical properties affecting electrical resistivity
3.2 Geotechnical properties affecting electrical resistivity of soils
3.3 Sensitivity of electrical resistivity with geotechnical parameters
4 Electrical mixing models: bridging the gap between geophysical and geotechnical engineering
4.2 Available electrical mixing models
4.3 Applicability and limitations of the available models
4.4 Practically applicable models (Kibria and Hossain, 2015 and 2016)
5 Electrical resistivity of municipal solid waste (MSW)
5.2 Effect of moisture content on electrical resistivity
5.3 Effect of unit weight
5.4 Effect of decomposition
5.5 Effect of temperature
5.6 Effect of composition
5.7 Effect of pore fluid composition
5.8 Statistical model to connect resistivity with MSW properties
5.9 Model validation
6 Case studies on the application of resistivity imaging
6.2 Application of resistivity imaging in the MSE wall
6.3 Application of RI in the investigation of slope failure
6.4 Application of RI in the investigation of an Earth dam
6.5 Application of RI for the Evaluation of Unknown Foundations
6.6 Application of RI to investigate moisture variations in bioreactor landfills
6.7 Application of RI to investigate moisture variations of expansive subgrades
6.8 Application of RI in monitoring groundwater activities at the Cenxi Tunnel
6.9 Application of RI in cave detection
Appendix A: Compacted clay correlations
Appendix B: Undisturbed clay correlations
Appendix C: Boring logs
Dr. Sahadat Hossain is a Professor of Civil Engineering Department at the University of Texas at Arlington. Dr. Hossain has completed his B.S. degree (1994) in Civil Engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Bombay, India, Master of Engineering (1997) in Geotechnical Engineering from Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Bangkok, Thailand, and Ph.D. (2002) from North Carolina State University (NCSU) at Raleigh, NC, USA.
Dr. Hossain has more than twenty years of professional and research experience in geotechnical and geo-environmental engineering. His experience includes design and construction of solider pile, sheet pile, contiguous bored pile, scant pile, diaphragm wall, and mechanically stabilised earth (MSE) wall, slope stability analyses. Dr. Hossain had worked on more than 100 (One Hundred) geotechnical design and construction projects in Bangladesh, Singapore, Hong Kong, Malaysia, and Thailand. His experience also includes working with various numerical analysis and design tools including the Finite Element Program PLAXIS, the Finite Difference Program FLAC, L-PILE, DRIVEN, ct-SHORING, gINT, STABL, MODFLOW, HELP, and few other programs.
At present, Dr. Hossain is working with the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) on different geotechnical engineering projects. Dr. Hossain was interviewed by local TV (ABC News, CBS News, Fox News) and national newspaper Atlantic Cities on the utilisation recycled plastic pins for slope stabilisation. Recently (July 2016), Star Telegram of North Texas had an editorial article of RPP stabilised slopes and endorsed the method to be used for highway slope repair.
Dr. Hossain has contributed to the literature by being the author/co-author of more than 100 (one hundred) research papers that have been published in international journals and conference proceedings. Dr. Hossain has presented his research work in many national and international conferences. Dr. Hossain is active committee member of two committees sponsored by the National Academies Transportation Research Board (TRB), Deep Foundation Institute’s (DFI) Slurry Wall Committee and American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). He is also actively involved with International Solid Waste Association (ISWA) and Solid Waste Association of North America (SWANA).
Golam Kibria, Ph.D., P.E. is a Senior Staff Engineer in Drash Consultants, LLC (A TTL Company) San Antonio, Texas. He started his career as a Junior Engineer in the Institute of Water Modeling, Dhaka, Bangladesh in the month of May 2009. He served in the Coast, Port, and Estuary Management Division of the institute till December 2009. Dr. Kibria enrolled the University of Texas at Arlington in 2010 for graduate studies and graduated with his Ph.D. in 2014. During his graduate studies, Dr. Kibria worked with Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) on failure investigation of highway slopes, MSE wall and geophysical evaluation of geo-infrastructures. He was active member of TxDOT featured project on "Sustainable Slope Stabilisation Using Recycled Plastic Pin". The project was nationally recognised as a major contribution on cost-effective sustainable solution for shallow slope failure by many television channels and newspapers.
After his Ph.D. he started working as a Geotechnical Engineer in California and then moved to Texas. As a consultant, he has extensive experience in the laterally loaded foundation of power transmission structures, slope stability, pavement, and retaining structures. In addition to his consulting activities, Dr. Kibria is actively involved in research and collegial activities. He is an accredited reviewer of many scientific journals. Dr. Kibria is an Editorial Board member of the Journal of Geological Resource and Engineering. He is a member of "Geophysical Engineering" and "Computational Geotechnics" technical committee of ASCE.
Dr. Kibria has several publications in many high impact factor engineering journals and presented his scholarly researches in local, national and international conferences. He is a professional engineer (P.E.) at the State of Texas. Dr. Kibria strongly believe in innovation and application of green technology to resolve existing geotechnical problems.
Dr. Sadik Khan is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Jackson State University (JSU). Dr. Khan has completed his MS on August 2011 and PhD in Geotechnical Engineering on December 2013, from the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA). Before his graduate studies, Dr. Khan had 2.5 years of industry experience in Bangladesh and worked with the top management team in several projects to construct single and multi-storied residential and factory buildings, 150 kV power plant foundations and 132/33 kV substations. During his PhD dissertation, he conducted extensive research in the slope stabilisation using recycled plastic pin in Texas. He also worked in different research projects on failure investigation of highway slopes and MSE wall and geophysical evaluation of existing highway sub-structures. Dr. Khan has extensive experience in the instrumentation of highway slopes and pavement sites. He also conducted extensive numerical studies using Finite Element Method (FEM) in highway slope stabilisation. Dr. Khan has several publications in prestigious civil engineering journals and presented in local, national and international conferences such as Transportation Research Board Meeting, Geo-Congress, Geo-Frontiers, etc. Dr. Khan is a member of American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) and a professional engineer (P.E.) at the State of Texas.