Six Sigma for Powerful Improvement : A Green Belt DMAIC Training System with Software Tools and a 25-Lesson Course book cover
1st Edition

Six Sigma for Powerful Improvement
A Green Belt DMAIC Training System with Software Tools and a 25-Lesson Course

ISBN 9781466564695
Published May 9, 2013 by Productivity Press
524 Pages 522 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Although the Six Sigma Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control (DMAIC) methodology is a widely accepted tool for achieving efficient management of all aspects of operations, there are still many unwarranted concerns about its perceived complexity and implementation costs. Dispelling these myths, Six Sigma for Powerful Improvement: A Green Belt DMAIC Training System with Software Tools and a 25-Lesson Course clarifies the long-accepted statistical and logical processes of Six Sigma and provides you with tools you can use again and again in your own "real world" projects—removing any doubts regarding their simplicity and "doability.".

Not only does the book provide you with reasons for using the tools, it reveals the underlying doctrines, formulas, and steps required. Although the tools and techniques presented are specifically associated with the DMAIC philosophy, they are applicable across a wide range of management and improvement scenarios. Explaining Six Sigma processes in language that's easy to understand, the book starts with an overview, followed by specific techniques and procedures. It presents detailed, illustrated lesson segments that include an agenda, roadmap, objectives, and a list of takeaway concepts. It also:

  • Provides seven separate Excel tool templates—each with its own user guide and additional smaller tools
  • Presents completed Excel sample workbooks for each tool to facilitate your comprehension and utilization confidence
  • Includes a CD with a PowerPoint-based DMAIC training course, the aforementioned Excel-based Six Sigma tools and workbooks, and extensive instructor’s notes embedded in each lesson

Trained as and employed as a Black Belt and later as a Master Black Belt, the author presents doctrines and procedures with a strong pedigree and history of success. The book uses hundreds of figures and tables to illustrate key concepts and also makes them available in full-color on the accompanying CD. This is also true of the figures in the user guides that document the accompanying tools. For each of the tools, the book includes a completed sample workbook. The PowerPoint and Excel lessons and tools are provided in both 2007 and 97-2003 versions.

Table of Contents


Define Phase Overview
Define Phase Orientation within DMAIC
Define Phase Objectives

Identify Preliminary Requirements: Step 1

ID Preliminary Requirements Orientation within DMAIC
     The Define Phase
Identification of CTQ Requirements of Your Customer
     Sources of Customer Data
     Voice of the Customer
Determining the VOC
     CTQ Capture Guidelines

Tool Training: Voice of the Customer
What is the Voice of the Customer?
Why Care about the Voice of the Customer?
Where do You Hear the Voice of Your Customer?
The VOC Listening Process
     Role of Customer Segmentation in VOC Listening Strategies
     Information Segmentation/Categorization
     How Should You Listen to Customers?
     Focus Groups
     Tool Selection and Using Tools in Combination
Sampling Bias
     Instrumentation Bias
     Response Bias
     Sources of Bias
     Response Bias Exercise
     How do You Control Bias?
Organizing and Analyzing the Collected Voices of Your Customers
     Affinity Diagrams
     Structure Trees
     Prioritizing Needs with Kano Analysis
     Prioritizing Needs Through Customer Feedback
Working with Critical-to-Quality Requirements
     Setting Targets and Specifications for CTQs
     Introduction to Quality Function Deployment
Communicating the VOC Learning
     Principles of Listening and Sharing Learning
     Key Audiences
     Developing the Communication Plan
Link Business/Organizational Strategy Success to CTQ Fulfillment
Research Ethics

Develop Team Charter: Step 2

Orientation within DMAIC
Project Charter
Five Major Elements of a Charter
     Business Case
     Problem and Goal Statements
Project Scope
     In/Out Frame Tool
Project Roles
     Stakeholder List
     ARMI Model
     Team Roles
     Team Formation and the GRPI Checklist and Assessment
Good versus Bad Projects

Define a High-Level Process Map: Step 3

Orientation within DMAIC
What is a Process?
Elements of a Process: SIPOC
Levels of Processes
Categories of Processes
Process Mapping
     Benefits of Process Mapping
     Perceptions of Processes
     Build the Process Map
     Evaluating a Process Map
     Impacts Resulting From the Building and Analysis of Process Maps
Measure Phase


Measure Phase Overview
Orientation to the Measure Phase
     Measure Phase Activity Synopsis
Using Statistics to Solve Problems
     Selecting Relevant CTQ Characteristics and/or Project Ys
     Defining Performance Standards
Measurement Systems Analysis
Using Statistics to Characterize Processes
Measure Phase Deliverables

Select Critical-to-Quality Characteristics: Step 4
Orientation within DMAIC
Quality Function Deployment
     The QFD "Opportunity"
     Formal Definition of QFD
     Quality Function Deployment Flow
     Building a "House of Quality
     Abbreviated Example of a Service-Oriented QFD Using a Different Form
     Common QFD/House of Quality Pitfalls
Failure Modes and Effects Analysis
     FMEA Calculations
     Excel FMEA Tool
     Building an FMEA
Data Types
     Why is Data Type Important?

Tool Training: Excel Quality Function Deployment Workbook
"Home" Worksheet
The QFD Administrative Worksheet
QFD Stakeholder Worksheet
Stakeholder Representative Worksheet
CTQ Initial List Worksheet
Stakeholder CTQ Importance Survey Worksheet
Stakeholder CTQ Priorities Worksheet
CTQ Priority Worksheet
Process Member List Worksheet
     The Process Member List Filter
The Scratchpad Worksheet
Process Impact Worksheets (3)
     Assessing/Scoring Process Members’ Effect on CTQ Satisfaction
The Process Rank Worksheets (3) Summary

Define Performance Standards: Step 5
Orientation of Step 5 within DMAIC
Performance Standards
     Purpose of Performance Standards
     Operational Definitions for Performance Standard
Operational Definition Exercise
     Tool to Use in Operational Definition Exercise
Review Basic Nature of Data
     How Discrete Data Varies from Continuous Data
Completing the Performance Standard

Tool Training: 7 Process Improvement Tools
Scatter Plot Charts
     Build a Scatter Plot
Run Charts/Control Charts
     Continuous Data Run/Control Charts
     Average and Standard Deviation Charts (X-Bar and s Charts)
     Discrete Data Run/Control Charts
     Summary of Chart Selection Logic
     Making a Histogram in Excel
     Pareto Charts
     A Specialized Histogram: The Boxplot
Stratification Diagrams
Cause-and-Effect (Fishbone/Ishikawa) Diagrams

Establish Data Collection Plan and Measurement System Analysis: Step 6
Orientation within DMAIC
Data Collection Plan
     Items to Consider
     Pre-Data Collection Steps
     During the Collection
     Post-Data Collection Steps
     Sample Data Collection Plan
Controlling the Measurement Environment
     Sources of Measurement Environment Variation
Measurement System Analysis
     Measurement Gauge Requirements
      An MSA Checklist
     Test/Retest Study
     Test/Retest Study Example
     Gauge Reproducibility and Repeatability Studies
     Analyzing Gauge R&R with Attribute Data (AR&R)
Excel Attribute Gauge R&R and Equipment Gauge R&R Tools Provided with This Book
     Excel Attribute Gauge R&R Tool
     Excel Equipment Gauge R&R Tool
          Working with Sample Size
     Gauge R&R: Temporal Effects


Analyze Phase Overview
Orientation within DMAIC
Step 7: Establish Process Capability
     How Do You Determine the Performance Objective?
Step 8: Define Improvement Objective for Y
Step 9: Identify Sources of Variation (Problems)

Establish Process Capability: Step 7
Orientation within DMAIC
Basic Statistics Review
     The Normal Curve
Working with Continuous Data
     Calculating Z (Z-Score) 
     Calculating Capability
     Process Centering
     Rational Subgrouping
     Components of Variation
Working with Discrete Data
     Discrete Data Definitions
     Linking DPO to the Probability of a Defect
     Sigma Product Report (L-1)
     Process Yield
     Can you Achieve Six Sigma Through Inspections?
     Quantification of Defects: Escaping Defects
Tying It All Together

Define Performance Objectives: Step 8
Orientation within DMAIC
Defining Process Objectives
     Nature of Benchmarking
     Types of Benchmarking
     Benchmarking Concept versus Process
     What Benchmarking IS and ISN’T
     Common Benchmarking Mistakes
     Points to Remember and Questions to Ask about Benchmarking
     Sources of Information for Benchmarking

Identify Sources of Variation and Waste (Problems): Step 9

Orientation of the Identify Variation Sources Step within DMAIC
Focus of Improvement
Tools to Identify Variation Sources
     Cause-and-Effect (Fishbone/Ishikawa) Diagram
Alternative Cause-and-Effect Exhibits
Pareto Diagrams
     Building a Pareto Chart
Process Maps
     Nature of Work: Value Analysis
     Process Map Analysis: Flow of Work
     Process Disconnects
     Cycle Time Analysis
     Process Map Analysis: Interpretation
Excel Process Map Analysis Tool
Value-Stream Maps
Hypothesis Testing
     Idea of Sampling
     Sampling Methods
Data Analysis
     Studying Stability
     Studying Normality
     Working with Non-normal Data
     Working with Normal Data: Discrete X and Continuous Y
     t-Distribution and Small Samples
Conducting Tests on Variances: ANOVA
     ANOVA in General
     One-Factor ANOVA Tests
     Two-Factor ANOVA Tests without Replication
Testing for Goodness of Fit and Independence
     Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit Tests
     Chi-Square Independence Tests
     Sample Size, Degrees of Freedom: Confidence Intervals 
     Using the Confidence Interval Formula for Continuous Data to Derive Sample Size Formula
     Using the Confidence Interval Formula for Continuous Data to Derive Attainable Precision Given a Maximum Sample Size
     Three Ways to Estimate σ When It is Unknown
Excel Calculator for Sample Requirements for Confidence Levels and Process Improvements
     Discrete Sample Sizes
     Confidence Interval Calculator
     Samples Needed to Confirm Defect Factor Reductions
Summary of Process and Population Sampling
Certify Process Problems

Tool Training: Change Acceptance Management

Nature of Change and Force Field Analysis
     Dilemma of Change
Change Acceptance Management Methods and Techniques
     Creating a Shared Need      
     Shaping the Vision
     Mobilizing Commitment
Changing Systems and Structures
     What are Systems and Structures?
     What Portions of Systems and Structures Do You Want to Influence?
Internal Process of Change

Tool Training: Project Solution Recommendation Package Tool
Use of the Project Solution Recommendation Package Tool
Layout of the Excel Project Solution Recommendation Package Tool
Using the Project Solution Recommendation Package Tool
     CTQ List Worksheet
     Solution Packages Worksheet
     Solution-CTQ Map Worksheet
     The Options–Estimates Worksheet
     The Selected Solutions Worksheet


Improve Phase Overview
Orientation within DMAIC
Improve Phase Objectives
     Key Points to Consider
Improve Phase Strategy
     Improvement Goal
     Identify Vital Xs for a Given Y
     Characterization of Xs
Experimenting with the Process
     Testing Theories
     Examples of Approaches and Solutions to Problems
     Pilot High-Level Steps

Experimenting and Piloting: Step 10 (Screen Potential Causes) and Step 11 (Discover Variable Relationships)

Orientation within DMAIC
Improvement by Design
Design by Experimentation
     Experiment Plan
     Experiment Result Reports
Experimental Strategies: Design of Experiments
     "Stick with a Winner"
     One Factor at a Time (OFAT)
     Factorial Layouts, Full and Fractional
Visualizing the Experimental Space
Factorial Patterns of Experimentation
Reducing the Sizes of Experiments
     Fractional Factoring
     Properties of a Properly Selected Half-Fraction Factorial Design
     Randomization: Experimenter’s Insurance
Running Experiments
     Experiment Definitions
     Collecting the Experimental Data
Analyzing the Experimental Data
     Factor Control Table
     Experimental Raw Results
     Examine Factor Effects
Excel 8-Run DOE Tool
     Chart Worksheet Added to 8-Run DOE Tool
Screening Designs
     Adaptation of the 8-Run DOE Tool to Run 8 Factor Plackett–Burman Analyses
     When Should You Pilot
     How Should You Prepare to Pilot?
     Measure the Pilot Performance and Analyze Its Results
     Pilot-Information Technology (IT) Linkages
     Piloting Tips and Traps

Confirming Solutions, Setting Tolerances, and Documenting: Step 12

Orientation within DMAIC
Selecting Final Experiments
Detectable Effect Size
Using the DES Formula
Finalize Response Variables to Control
Establishing Tolerances
     Principles of Tolerancing
     Tolerancing Example: A Weight-Loss Program
     Tolerance Summary
     Why Use Simulation?
     When Should You Use Simulation?
     Modeling and Simulation Processes
Monte Carlo Simulation
     Stochastic Model Example
Deterministic Simulation
     Deterministic Models
     Building and Executing a Deterministic Model
     Why Do We Document?
     Who is the Audience for Process Documentation?
     What is Included in Process Documentation?
     What Formats Should Be Used for Process Documentation?
     Documentation Tips


Control Phase Overview
Orientation of Control Phase within DMAIC
     Control Objectives
     Maintaining Control
     Process Standardization
     Primary Control Mechanisms
Confirming Your Solution before Implementation
     Assess the Effectiveness of Your Improvement
Make Your Improvements Permanent
Project Closeout

Validate Measurement System and Confirm Solution to Management: Step
Orientation within DMAIC
Validate and Make Provision for the Measurement System for Post-Implementation Use
Confirm Your Solution to Management
     CTQ Score
     Short-Term Sigma Improvement
     Costs and Benefits

Build Process Control Plan: Step 14
Orientation within DMAIC
What is a Quality or Control Plan?
     Quality Plan versus Control Plan: What is the Difference?
     Example of Control Plan Exhibit
Keys to Process Controls
     The Monitoring Process
     How Can You Detect Changes in Your Process?
     The Auditing Process
     Additional Example of a Process Control Plan
Risk Management
     Key Steps of Risk Management
     Methods to Identify Risks
     The Elements of Risk
Rating Your Risks: Two Excel-Based Tools
     Risk Management Calculator for Projects and Processes
     Risk Calculation Procedures for the Risk Calculator
     FMEA and Risk Mitigation Tool
     The FMEA Worksheet
Mistake Proofing
     Types of Human Error
     Mistake Proofing Techniques
The Control Plan

Transfer Solution to Process Owner and Close Project: Step 15

Orientation within DMAIC Objectives
     Conduct a Structured Transition
Recommend System and Structure Modifications to Retain your Improvements
Turnover Briefings
Training and Orientation Packages
Project Storyboard
     Project Storyboard Contents
Process Transfer Documentation
SPC Recommendations
     Selecting Appropriate Charts
Closing Your Project
     Administrative Tasks
     Implementation Summary
     Lessons Learned
     IT-Specific Tasks (When Appropriate)
     Project Wrap-Up Summary Document



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Charles Carroll is an independent consultant. Initially educated at the U.S. Naval Academy, he later earned an MS in Systems Management at the University of Southern California and served as a Supply, Logistics and Systems Officer in the Marine Corps. He then worked at Sprint Corporation and General Electric’s Employers Reinsurance Corporation (ERC), where he was trained and certified as an internal consultant in GE’s Six Sigma Quality processes,served as a Master Black Belt for the IT Department, administered the local and offshore outsourcing programs, automated project management, and established a global Project Management Office within ERC’s IT department.

Charlie serves as an independent consultant in project/program/PMO management, process improvement, and application development. He has written articles for a number of professional publications, spoken at domestic and international conferences, and developed a number of project management and Six Sigma tools and training for clients. He can be reached at [email protected]