Small Cetaceans of Japan : Exploitation and Biology book cover
1st Edition

Small Cetaceans of Japan
Exploitation and Biology

ISBN 9781498779005
Published May 1, 2017 by CRC Press
476 Pages 139 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

This book summarizes and analyzes the biology, ecology, exploitation and management of small cetaceans in Japan. It describes the various types of cetacean fisheries in Japan and their historical development, the life histories and ecologies of the main species involved, and the history and problems of conservation and management. The data show that in some cases the number of small cetaceans harvested exceed sustainable limits and have led to depletion of populations. The book provides a case study of what can go wrong when the needs of industry and conservation collide. The descriptions of life history and ecology are relevant to issues of conservation and management, not just for cetaceans, but for all fisheries around the world.

Table of Contents


    Outline of History of Small-Cetacean Fisheries
    Importance of History
    Iruka vs. Kujira Conservation Measures
    Small Cetaceans and Related Fisheries
    Recent Statistics for Small-Cetacean Fisheries

    Hand-harpoon Fishery for Dolphins and Porpoises
    Pre-historic Operations
    Hand-harpoon Fishery for Small Cetaceans (1): before World War II
    Hand-harpoon Fishery for Small Cetaceans (2): after World War II
    Expansion of Dall’s Porpoise Fishery toward the 1980s
    Statistics of the Dall’s Porpoise Hand-harpoon Fishery
    Hand-harpoon Fishery off Choshi
    Hand-harpoon Fishery around Taiji
    Crossbow Fishery in Nago

    Drive Fisheries for Dolphins
    Coasts of Noto Peninsula, Sea of Japan
    Tsushima Islands, Tsushima Strait
    Iki Island, Tsushima Strait
    Goto Islands, East China Sea
    Northern Kyushu and Yamaguchi Prefecture
    Sanriku Coasts, North Pacific
    Izu Peninsula, North Pacific
    Operation Types
    Dolphin Species Taken by the Izu Fishery
    Catch Statistics and Magnitude of Operation
    Taiji, North Pacific
     History of the Dolphin Fishery
    Catch Statistics
    Fishing Season
    Trend in the Dockside Price
    Nago, Okinawa Island
    Miuranishi, Western Shikoku

    Small-type Whaling
    Operation Pattern

    Management of Cetacean Fisheries in Japan
    Fishery Acts
    Rule for Regulation of Whaling
    Rule for Regulation of Mother-ship Fisheries
    Rule for Regulation of Steamship Whaling
    Rule for Regulation of Small-type Whaling
    Rule for Regulation of Specified Offshore Fisheries
    Alterations of Whaling Regulations and International Relationship after World War II
    Current Regulation of Cetacean Fisheries
    Other Laws on Conservation of Cetaceans
    Act on Protection of Fishery Resources
    Act for Conservation of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
    Cultural Heritage Protection Act

    Regulation of Fisheries for Dolphins and Porpoises
    Historical Background and Early Government Actions
    Actions of the Fisheries Agency
    Measures Taken with Regard to Incidental Takes and Strandings
    Problems in Management of Incidental Mortality
    Catch Quotas for Dolphins and Porpoises

    Moving Toward the End of Commercial Whaling
    Small-type Whaling
    Brief History
    Actions related to the Moratorium on Commercial Whaling
    Large-type Whaling
    Before World War II
    After World War II
    Pelagic Whaling
    Establishment, Expansion and Reduction
    Background of Overfishing
    Establishment of Nihon Kyodo Hogei
    Restructuring of the Whales Research Institute
    The Institute of Cetacean Research and Scientific Whaling


    Finless Porpoise
    Description of the Species
    Scientific Name and Type Locality
    Worldwide Distribution
    Taxonomy and Geographical Variation
    Distribution of Finless Porpoises in Japan
    Local Populations of Japanese Finless Porpoises
    Abundance and Seasonality of Distribution
    Seasonal Movements
    Problems in Estimating Abundance
    Abundance of Japanese Finless Porpoises
    Abundance Decline in the Inland Sea Population
    Background of the Abundance Decline
    History of Protection of Finless Porpoises in Japan
    Life History
    Parturition Season
    Reproductive Cycle
    Social Structure
    School Size

    Dall’s Porpoise
    Population Structure
    Pigmentation Pattern
    Osteology and Body Length
    Breeding Areas of Dalli-type Dall’s Porpoises
    Accumulation of Pollutants
    Parasite Load
    DNA and Isozymes
    Population Structure: Summary and Future Studies
    Life History
    Age Determination
    Segregation Viewed from Body Length Composition
    Neonatal Body Length and Parturition Season
    Mating Season and Gestation Period
    Geographical Variation in Breeding Season
    Reproductive Cycle
    Female Sexual Maturity
    Male Sexual Maturity
    Longevity and Age Composition
    Body Length and Growth Curve
    Feeding Habits
    Food Consumption
    Social Structure
    School Size
    Behavior in Relation to Age and Sex Structure
    Abundance and Trends
    Populations around Japan (see also Chapter 2)
    Offshore Populations

    Striped Dolphin
    Sea Surface Temperature
    Geographical Distribution
    Population Structure in the Western North Pacific
    Population and Management
    Geographical Distribution and Population Structure
    Body size
    Mercury Level
    Fetal Size and Migration Timing
    Suggested Population Structure
    Life History
    Age Determination
    Body length at Birth
    Body Length Composition
    Mean Growth Curve
    Male Sexual Maturity
    Female Sexual Maturity
    Declining Age of Females at Sexual Maturity
    Seasonality of Reproduction
    Seasonality of Male Reproduction
    Female Breeding Cycle and Annual Pregnancy Rate
    Female Reproductive cycle and Age
    Historical Change in Female Reproductive Cycle
    Age Composition, Sex Ratio and Apparent Mortality Rate
    School Structure
    Food Habits
    Effect of Fisheries on the Population

    Bottlenose Dolphins
    Taxonomy of the Genus Tursiops
    Identification of Bottlenose Dolphins around Japan
    Distribution of Bottlenose Dolphins around Japan
    Life History
    Age Determination
    Gestation Period, Fetal Growth and Breeding Season
    Sex Ratio
    Age Composition
    Body Length Frequency
    Growth Curve
    Male Sexual Maturity
    Sexual Maturity and Reproductive Cycle of Females
    Comparison between the Pacific and the Iki Samples
    Life History Parameters
    Background of the Change

    Short-finned Pilot Whale
    Distinction between the Globicephala spp.
    Description of Short-finned Pilot Whale
    Distribution of Short-fined Pilot Whales
    Northern and Southern Forms off Japan
    Dawn of Japanese Cetology
    Confusion and Reorganization
    More about Japanese Pilot Whales
    First Encounter with the Northern Form
    Distinction between the Two Forms
    Adaptive Significance of Body Size
    Taxonomy of the Two Forms of Short-finned Pilot Whale
    Life History
    Viewing Life through Carcasses
    Age Determination
    Female Reproductive Activity
    School Structure
    Mixed School
    School Size
    Males in the School
    Copulation Partner and Paternity
    Genetic Relatedness among School Members
    Summary of School Structure
    Post-reproductive Females
    Interaction with Human Activities
    Catch History
    Abundance and Trends
    Problems in Management

    Baird’s Beaked Whale
    Outline of the Distribution
    Regional Distribution and Population Structure
    Baird’s Beaked Whales along the Pacific Coast of Japan
    Food Habits
    Stomach Contents
    Diving and Feeding
    Life History
    Tooth structure and Age Determination
    Sexual Maturity
    Fetal Growth and Gestation Time
    Body length and Age
    Physical Maturity
    Female Reproductive Cycle
    Social Structure
    Sexual Maturity and Tooth Eruption
    School Structure
    Sex Ratio
    Why Do Males Live Longer?
    History of Exploitation
    Type of Whaling Operation
    Catch Statistics
    Manipulated Statistics and Management

    Pacific White-sided Dolphin
    Populations and Their Distribution
    Growth and Sexual Dimorphism of the Dorsal Fin
    Materials and Methods
    Body Length Composition and Neonatal Length
    Body Length and Age
    Sexual Maturity
    Sexual Dimorphism of the Dorsal Fin

    Closing Chapter : Cetacean Conservation and Biologists
    The Community I Grew up in
    Industry and Conservation
    Cetacean Tragedies I have Witnessed
    Striped Dolphins of the Pacific Coast of Japan
    Sperm Whales in the Western North Pacific
    To Avoid Future Tragedies
    Unresolved Questions on Cetacean Biology
    Factors that Determine Breeding Season
    Function of Post-reproductive Females
    Social Sex in Cetaceans
    Greater Male Longevity in Baird’s Beaked Whales
    My View on Cetacean Conservation
    Target to Conserve
    Element to Conserve
    Why Culture
    Evidence of Cetacean Culture
    Responsibility of Cetacean Scientists


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      Dr. Toshio Kasuya graduated in 1961 from the Division of Fisheries, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tokyo, and obtained his Doctorate in Agriculture from the University of Tokyo in 1972. Dr. Kasuya had a long career in many prestigious Japanese institutions related to fisheries and marine mammals conservation and management. From April 1961 to March 1966, he was a researcher at the Japanese Whales Research Institute. In April 1966 he joined the Ocean Research Institute at the University of Tokyo, where he was a Research Associate until March 1983. In April 1983 he joined the Far Seas Fisheries Research Laboratory of the Japanese Fisheries Agency where he exercised as Project Leader and later until March 1997 as Division Director. From April 1997 to March 2001, Dr. Kasuya has been a Professor at the Faculty of Bioresources, Mie University, and from April  2001 to March 2006 a Professor at the Division of Animal Sciences, Teikyo University of Science and Technology.