Smart CMOS Image Sensors and Applications
Because of their high noise immunity and low static power supply drain, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices produce less heat than other forms of logic and allow a high density of logic functions on a chip. These beneficial characteristics have fueled the use of CMOS image sensors in consumer electronics, robot vision, biotechnology, and medicine. With the introduction of smart functions in CMOS image sensors, even more versatile applications are now possible.
Exploring this popular technology, Smart CMOS Image Sensors and Applications focuses on the smart functions implemented in CMOS image sensors as well as the applications of these sensors. After discussing the history of smart CMOS image sensors, the book describes the fundamental elements of CMOS image sensors. It covers some optoelectronic device physics and introduces typical CMOS image sensor structures, such as an active pixel sensor (APS). Subsequent chapters elucidate the functions and materials of smart CMOS image sensors and present examples of smart imaging. The final chapter explores various applications of smart CMOS image sensors. Several appendices supply a range of information on constants, illuminance, MOSFET characteristics, and optical resolution.
This book provides a firm foundation in existing smart CMOS image sensor technology and applications, preparing you for the next phase of smart CMOS image sensors.
Table of Contents
A general overview
Brief history of CMOS image sensors
Brief history of smart CMOS image sensors
Organization of the book
Fundamentals of CMOS Image Sensors
Fundamental of photo detection
Photo detectors for smart CMOS image sensors
Accumulation mode in PD
Basic pixel structures
Basic sensor characteristics
Comparison between pixel architecture
Comparison with CCDs
Smart Functions and Materials
Materials other than Silicon
Structures other than standard CMOS technologies
Low light imaging
Wide dynamic range
3D range finder
Dedicated arrangement of pixel and optics
Information and communication applications
Appendix A: Tables of Constants
Appendix B: Illuminance
Appendix C: Human Eye and CMOS Image Sensors
Appendix D: Fundamental Characteristics of MOS Capacitor
Appendix E: Fundamental Characteristics of MOSFET
Appendix F: Optical Format and Resolution
"It not only provides the foundation for understanding existing CMOS sensor technologies but a wealth of references and resources for further research."
– In OPN, May 2008, Vol. 19, No. 5