Sodium Fast Reactors with Closed Fuel Cycle (Hardback) book cover

Sodium Fast Reactors with Closed Fuel Cycle

By Baldev Raj, P. Chellapandi, P.R. Vasudeva Rao

© 2015 – CRC Press

901 pages | 44 Color Illus. | 675 B/W Illus.

Purchasing Options:$ = USD
Paperback: 9781138893047
pub: 2017-07-01
Unavailable
N/A
Hardback: 9781466587670
pub: 2015-04-15
SAVE ~$43.99
$219.95
$175.96
x
eBook (VitalSource) : 9781466587694
pub: 2015-04-15
from $120.95


FREE Standard Shipping!

About the Book

Sodium Fast Reactors with Closed Fuel Cycle delivers a detailed discussion of an important technology that is being harnessed for commercial energy production in many parts of the world. Presenting the state of the art of sodium-cooled fast reactors with closed fuel cycles, this book:

  • Offers in-depth coverage of reactor physics, materials, design, safety analysis, validations, engineering, construction, and commissioning aspects
  • Features a special chapter on allied sciences to highlight advanced reactor core materials, specialized manufacturing technologies, chemical sensors, in-service inspection, and simulators
  • Addresses design essentials with a focus on reactor assembly including core and coolant circuits, fuel handling, instrumentation and control, energy conversion, and containment systems
  • Provides design codes and standards with sufficient background information to ensure a solid understanding of the underlying mechanics
  • Supplies guidelines for concept selection, design, analysis, and validation

Sodium Fast Reactors with Closed Fuel Cycle is a valuable reference for industry professionals involved in the construction of fast-reactor power plants, as well as graduate-level engineering students of the design and development of sodium-cooled fast-reactor systems and components.

Reviews

"…I think this book will be useful for students and post-graduate students having specializations in various areas of SFR technology. …Chapters include a lot of world experience related to SFR designing and construction and are well illustrated… I will be glad to have this book on my table."

—Yury Ashurko, State Scientific Centre of the Russian Federation – Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (SSC RF-IPPE)

"A comprehensive source book providing information about various aspects of fast reactors and their associated fuel cycles would be of significant value for experts, as well as for younger-generation professionals aspiring to take up challenging R&D programs in designing and building fast reactor systems. I am delighted that such a book on fast reactors has been made a reality by my colleagues, Dr. Baldev Raj, Dr. P. Chellapandi, and Dr. P.R. Vasudeva Rao. I congratulate them for their fine efforts in preparing this comprehensive treatise on this important subject."

—R.K. Sinha, Secretary, Department of Atomic Energy and Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission, Mumbai, India

"… provides authoritative information from a team that has recently built a fast reactor. … covers the full fuel cycle for sodium-cooled fast reactors and includes valuable construction experience. … a very important topic and the inclusion of the entire fuel cycle (including recycling) should make this book very valuable to the fast reactor professional community."

—Dr. Alan E. Waltar, Director, Nuclear Energy, Pacific Northwest National Lab, Richland, Washington, USA (Retired) and Professor and Head, Nuclear Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, USA (Retired)

Table of Contents

BASIS AND CONCEPTS

Nuclear Fission and Breeding

Introduction

About the Neutron

Nucleus Stability

Energy from Fission

Fission Neutrons and Energy Spectrum

Chain Reaction

Fissile and Fertile Materials

About Breeding

Working of Nuclear Reactors

Reactor Control and Safety: Reactor Physics

References

Fast Spectrum Reactor vis-à-vis Pressurized Water Reactors

Introduction

Neutronic Characteristics

Safety Characteristics

Geometric Features of Core

References

Description of a Fast Spectrum Reactor

Introduction

Core and Reactor Assembly

Main Heat Transport System

Component Handling

Steam-Water System

Electrical Power Systems

Instrumentation and Control

Unique Worthiness of SFR

Introduction

Uranium Utilization in the Open Fuel Cycle Mode

Uranium Utilization in the Closed Fuel Cycle Mode

Fuel Utilization in the Fast Breeder Reactor: A Case Study

High-Level Radioactive Waste Management and Environmental Issues

Minor Actinide Burning Design Concepts

Typical Minor Actinide Burning Scenario in Fast Spectrum Reactors (FSRs)

References

Design Objectives for the Efficient Use of Natural Uranium and Plutonium

Introduction

Growth

Performance and Fuel Consumption Aspects

References

Prospect of Various Types of FSRs

Introduction

Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors

Lead-Cooled Fast Reactors

Molten Salt Reactors

Gas-Cooled Fast Reactors

Comparison of Advanced Fast Reactors with SFRs

Fast Reactors That Evolved Post-Fukushima

References

DESIGN OF SODIUM FAST REACTORS

Choice of Materials and Their Performance

Introduction

Fuel

Core Structural Materials

Reactor Structures

Coolant

References

System and Components

Introduction

Reactor Core

Nuclear Steam Supply System

Reactor Mechanisms

Instrumentation and Control System

Energy Conversion Systems

References

Design Basis

Introduction

Failure Modes

Codes and Standards

Design Criteria for the Aspects Not Covered in RCC-MR/ASME

Thermal Hydraulic Design Criteria

References

Design Validations

Introduction

Structural Analysis Codes and Structural Design Methodology

Thermal Hydraulic Codes

Large-Scale Experimental Validations

Experimental Facilities for Qualification of SFR Components in India

Appendix A: 23-Parameter Chaboche Viscoplastic Model

Appendix B: 20-Parameter Viscoplastic Model for 9Cr-1Mo Steel

References

Design Analysis and Methods

Introduction

Reactor Physics

Thermal Hydraulics

Structural Mechanics Analysis of Special Problems Relevant to SFR

References

SAFETY

Safety Principles and Philosophy

Introduction

Inherent and Engineered Safety Features

Operation Simplicity

Radioactivity Release

References

Safety Criteria and Basis

Introduction

Generic Features of Fast Reactors to Be Addressed in the Safety Criteria

Safety Issues Related to Sodium to Be Addressed in the Safety Criteria

IAEA and Other International Safety Standards

Safety Criteria for SFR: A Few Highlights

Evolving Trends

References

Event Analysis

Introduction

Categorization of Events: Basis, Definition, and Explanation

Methodology of Analysis

Application of Plant Dynamics Study

Summary

References

Severe Accident Analysis

Introduction

Initiating Events

Severe Accident Scenarios

Mechanical Energy Release and Consequences

Postaccident Heat Removal

Radiological Consequences

References

Sodium Safety

Introduction

Sodium Fire

Sodium-Water Interaction

Sodium-Concrete Interaction

Sodium Fire Mitigation

References

Computer Codes and Validation

Introduction

Computer Codes for Severe Accident Analysis

Computer Codes for the Mechanical Consequences

Radioactive Release

Sodium Fire Codes

References

Test Facilities and Programs

Introduction

Overview of Test Facilities Related to Core Safety

Overview of Test Facilities Related to Molten Fuel-Coolant Interactions

Test Facilities Related to Postaccident Heat Removal

Test Facilities Related to Sodium Safety

References

Safety Experiments in Reactors

Introduction

Highlights of Safety Experiments

Conclusion

References

Severe Accident Management

Introduction

Analysis for the Consequences of Design Extension Conditions: PFBR Case Study

Improved Safety Features for Future SFRs

Summary

References

Safety Analysis of PFBR: A Case Study

Introduction

Safety Features Incorporated in PFBR

Severe Accident Analysis

Assessment of Primary Containment Potential: Highlights of Analysis

Sodium Leak through Top Shield and Containment Design Pressure

Temperature and Pressure Rise in RCB

Experimental Simulations

Postaccident Heat Removal

Site Boundary Dose

Summary

References

CONSTRUCTION AND COMMISSIONING

Specific Aspects of Civil Structures and Construction

Introduction

Specific Aspects of Reactor Buildings

Challenges in Civil Construction

References

Manufacturing and Erection of Mechanical Components

Specific Features of SFR Components w.r.t. Manufacturing and Erection

Manufacturing and Erection Tolerances: Basis and Challenges

Manufacturing Codes and Practices

Summary

References

Illustrations from International SFRs

Monju

Super Phenix (SPX1)

500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor

Summary

References

Commissioning Issues: Various Phases and Experiences

Fast Flux Test Facility

Phnéix

BN-600 Reactor Commissioning Experience

References

INTERNATIONAL SFR EXPERIENCES

SFR Program in Countries

Introduction

China

France

Germany

India

Japan

Korea

Russia

United States

References

Feedback from Operating Experiences

Introduction

Design Concepts

Material Behavior

Safety Experience

Operational Experience

References

Innovative Reactor Concepts for Future SFRs

Motivation, Strategies, and Approaches

INPRO: Closed Fuel Cycle with Fast Reactor (CNFC-FR)

Concepts Specific to Nations

References

FUEL CYCLE FOR SFRS

Fuel Cycle for SFRs

Introduction

Open and Closed Fuel Cycle

Closed Fuel Cycle for Fast Reactors

Fuel Types

Performance Requirements of Fast Reactor Fuels

Fuel Fabrication Processes

Fuel Reprocessing

Aqueous Reprocessing

Special Features of Fast Reactor Fuel Reprocessing

International Experience on Fast Reactor Fuel Reprocessing

Pyrochemical Reprocessing

Reprocessing of Carbide and Nitride Fuels

Partitioning of Minor Actinides

Waste Management for Fast Reactor Fuel Cycle

Fast Reactors and Minor Actinides Burning

Conclusion

References

DECOMMISSIONING ASPECTS

Decommissioning Aspects

Introduction

Major Difference between Decommissioning Aspects of SFR and PWR

Major Activities and Challenges Involved in Decommissioning of SFR

Technological Strategies

Experience and Feedback from Reactor Decommissioning

Summary

References

Bibliography

DOMAINS OF HIGH RELEVANCE TO SFR: TYPICAL EXAMPLES

Material Science and Metallurgy

Introduction

Core Structural Materials

Radiation-Resistant Steels

Ion Beam Simulation

Computer Simulation

Compatibility of Clad Material with Coolant and Fuel

Reactor Structural Materials

Steam Generator Materials

Hardfacing

Summary

References

Chemical Sensors for Sodium Coolant Circuits

Introduction

Sensors for Monitoring Dissolved Hydrogen in Liquid Sodium

Sensors for Monitoring Carbon Activity in Liquid Sodium

Sensors for Monitoring Oxygen in Liquid Sodium Systems

References

Robotics, Automation, and Sensors

Introduction

In-Service Inspection of Components of Fast Breeder Reactor

Remote Handing Tools and Robotic Devices for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities

Sensors for Robotics and Automation

Summary

References

Operator Training Simulators for Fast Breeder Reactors

Introduction

Types of Simulators

Operator Training Simulator

Basic Simulator Model

Design and Development of Training Simulator

Integration and Performance Testing

Verification and Validation of Training Simulator

Implementation

Configuration Management of Training Simulator

Reference Standards

ECONOMICS OF SFRS WITH A CLOSED FUEL CYCLE

Economics of SFRs with a Closed Fuel Cycle

Introduction

Overall Perception on the Economy of SFRs

Economic Assessment of International SFRs

Future Directions: Technological Challenges

Approach to Economics of SFR in India: A Case Study

References

About the Authors

Baldev Raj, BE, Ph.D, served the Department of Atomic Energy, India over a 42-year period until 2011. As distinguished scientist and director, Indira Gandhi Centre of Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, India (IGCAR), he has advanced several challenging technologies, especially those related to the fast breeder test reactor and the prototype fast breeder reactor. Dr. Raj pioneered the application of nondestructive examination (NDE) for basic research using acoustic and electromagnetic techniques in a variety of materials and components. He is also responsible for realizing societal applications of NDE in areas related to cultural heritage and medical diagnosis. He is the author of more than 970 refereed publications, 70 books, and special journal volumes, and more than 20 contributions to encyclopedias and handbooks, as well as the owner of 29 patents. He is immediate past president, International Institute of Welding and President, Indian National Academy of Engineering. He assumed responsibilities as the director of the National Institute of Advanced Studies, Bangalore, India in September 2014. He is a fellow of all science and engineering academies in India; member of the German Academy of Sciences; honorary member of the International Medical Sciences Academy; member of the International Nuclear Energy Academy; vice president, nondestructive testing, Academia International; and president-elect of the International Council of Academies of Engineering and Technological Sciences.

P. Chellapandi, BE (Hons.), M.Tech., Ph.D, is currently a distinguished scientist and director of the Reactor Design Group at the IGCAR. He specializes in reactor design, thermal hydraulics, structural mechanics, safety analysis, and experimental simulations. He is one of the key persons involved in the design and development activities of the 500 MWe prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR) since its inception. He has contributed significantly for the PFBR over a wide spectrum of design, analysis, qualification, and research activities, also involving academic and R&D institutions in the country. His current responsibilities include design of advanced oxide and metallic fast breeder reactors planned by the department. He is a senior professor at Homi Bhabha National Institute and has published about 130 journal papers. He is a fellow at the Indian National Academy of Engineering. He is the recipient of the Homi Bhabha Science and Technology Award; the Indian Nuclear Society Award; the Vasvik Award; the National Design Award in Mechanical Engineering from Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers; the Agni Award for Excellence in Self-Reliance from Defence Research and Development Organization; the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) Group Achievement Award for the design, manufacture, and erection of PFBR reactor assembly components; and the Distinguished Alumnus Award from the Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai.

P.R. Vasudeva Rao, B.Sc., Ph.D, is the director of the IGCAR and the General Services Organization at Kalpakkam, India. After graduating from Vivekananda College, Chennai, India, he joined the DAE in the 16th batch of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre training school. He was instrumental in the setting up of the Radiochemistry Laboratory at the IGCAR. He is an expert in the area of fast reactor fuel cycle, especially the back-end fuel cycle. He is a recipient of the Indian Nuclear Society Award (2007) for his contributions to the area of nuclear fuel cycle technologies. He was selected for the Material Research Society of India (MRSI) medal lecture in 1998 and MRSI-ICSC Superconductivity and Materials Science Senior Award in 2011. He was also selected for the award of the Silver Medal by the Chemical Research Society of India in 2011. He is a senior professor at the Homi Bhabha National Institute. He has nearly 250 publications in peer-reviewed international journals. His areas of interest include the development of technologies for fast reactors and associated fuel cycles, actinide separations, and education in the field of chemical sciences.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI024000
SCIENCE / Energy
SCI065000
SCIENCE / Mechanics / Dynamics / Thermodynamics
TEC010000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / General