Sodium Fast Reactors with Closed Fuel Cycle  book cover
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Sodium Fast Reactors with Closed Fuel Cycle





ISBN 9781466587670
Published April 15, 2015 by CRC Press
901 Pages - 44 Color & 675 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Sodium Fast Reactors with Closed Fuel Cycle delivers a detailed discussion of an important technology that is being harnessed for commercial energy production in many parts of the world. Presenting the state of the art of sodium-cooled fast reactors with closed fuel cycles, this book:

  • Offers in-depth coverage of reactor physics, materials, design, safety analysis, validations, engineering, construction, and commissioning aspects
  • Features a special chapter on allied sciences to highlight advanced reactor core materials, specialized manufacturing technologies, chemical sensors, in-service inspection, and simulators
  • Addresses design essentials with a focus on reactor assembly including core and coolant circuits, fuel handling, instrumentation and control, energy conversion, and containment systems
  • Provides design codes and standards with sufficient background information to ensure a solid understanding of the underlying mechanics
  • Supplies guidelines for concept selection, design, analysis, and validation

Sodium Fast Reactors with Closed Fuel Cycle is a valuable reference for industry professionals involved in the construction of fast-reactor power plants, as well as graduate-level engineering students of the design and development of sodium-cooled fast-reactor systems and components.

Table of Contents

BASIS AND CONCEPTS
Nuclear Fission and Breeding

Introduction
About the Neutron
Nucleus Stability
Energy from Fission
Fission Neutrons and Energy Spectrum
Chain Reaction
Fissile and Fertile Materials
About Breeding
Working of Nuclear Reactors
Reactor Control and Safety: Reactor Physics
References
Fast Spectrum Reactor vis-à-vis Pressurized Water Reactors
Introduction
Neutronic Characteristics
Safety Characteristics
Geometric Features of Core
References
Description of a Fast Spectrum Reactor
Introduction
Core and Reactor Assembly
Main Heat Transport System
Component Handling
Steam-Water System
Electrical Power Systems
Instrumentation and Control
Unique Worthiness of SFR
Introduction
Uranium Utilization in the Open Fuel Cycle Mode
Uranium Utilization in the Closed Fuel Cycle Mode
Fuel Utilization in the Fast Breeder Reactor: A Case Study
High-Level Radioactive Waste Management and Environmental Issues
Minor Actinide Burning Design Concepts
Typical Minor Actinide Burning Scenario in Fast Spectrum Reactors (FSRs)
References
Design Objectives for the Efficient Use of Natural Uranium and Plutonium
Introduction
Growth
Performance and Fuel Consumption Aspects
References
Prospect of Various Types of FSRs
Introduction
Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors
Lead-Cooled Fast Reactors
Molten Salt Reactors
Gas-Cooled Fast Reactors
Comparison of Advanced Fast Reactors with SFRs
Fast Reactors That Evolved Post-Fukushima
References
DESIGN OF SODIUM FAST REACTORS
Choice of Materials and Their Performance
Introduction
Fuel
Core Structural Materials
Reactor Structures
Coolant
References
System and Components
Introduction
Reactor Core
Nuclear Steam Supply System
Reactor Mechanisms
Instrumentation and Control System
Energy Conversion Systems
References
Design Basis
Introduction
Failure Modes
Codes and Standards
Design Criteria for the Aspects Not Covered in RCC-MR/ASME
Thermal Hydraulic Design Criteria
References
Design Validations
Introduction
Structural Analysis Codes and Structural Design Methodology
Thermal Hydraulic Codes
Large-Scale Experimental Validations
Experimental Facilities for Qualification of SFR Components in India
Appendix A: 23-Parameter Chaboche Viscoplastic Model
Appendix B: 20-Parameter Viscoplastic Model for 9Cr-1Mo Steel
References
Design Analysis and Methods
Introduction
Reactor Physics
Thermal Hydraulics
Structural Mechanics Analysis of Special Problems Relevant to SFR
References
SAFETY
Safety Principles and Philosophy
Introduction
Inherent and Engineered Safety Features
Operation Simplicity
Radioactivity Release
References
Safety Criteria and Basis
Introduction
Generic Features of Fast Reactors to Be Addressed in the Safety Criteria
Safety Issues Related to Sodium to Be Addressed in the Safety Criteria
IAEA and Other International Safety Standards
Safety Criteria for SFR: A Few Highlights
Evolving Trends
References
Event Analysis
Introduction
Categorization of Events: Basis, Definition, and Explanation
Methodology of Analysis
Application of Plant Dynamics Study
Summary
References
Severe Accident Analysis
Introduction
Initiating Events
Severe Accident Scenarios
Mechanical Energy Release and Consequences
Postaccident Heat Removal
Radiological Consequences
References
Sodium Safety
Introduction
Sodium Fire
Sodium-Water Interaction
Sodium-Concrete Interaction
Sodium Fire Mitigation
References
Computer Codes and Validation
Introduction
Computer Codes for Severe Accident Analysis
Computer Codes for the Mechanical Consequences
Radioactive Release
Sodium Fire Codes
References
Test Facilities and Programs
Introduction
Overview of Test Facilities Related to Core Safety
Overview of Test Facilities Related to Molten Fuel-Coolant Interactions
Test Facilities Related to Postaccident Heat Removal
Test Facilities Related to Sodium Safety
References
Safety Experiments in Reactors
Introduction
Highlights of Safety Experiments
Conclusion
References
Severe Accident Management
Introduction
Analysis for the Consequences of Design Extension Conditions: PFBR Case Study
Improved Safety Features for Future SFRs
Summary
References
Safety Analysis of PFBR: A Case Study
Introduction
Safety Features Incorporated in PFBR
Severe Accident Analysis
Assessment of Primary Containment Potential: Highlights of Analysis
Sodium Leak through Top Shield and Containment Design Pressure
Temperature and Pressure Rise in RCB
Experimental Simulations
Postaccident Heat Removal
Site Boundary Dose
Summary
References
CONSTRUCTION AND COMMISSIONING
Specific Aspects of Civil Structures and Construction
Introduction
Specific Aspects of Reactor Buildings
Challenges in Civil Construction
References
Manufacturing and Erection of Mechanical Components
Specific Features of SFR Components w.r.t. Manufacturing and Erection
Manufacturing and Erection Tolerances: Basis and Challenges
Manufacturing Codes and Practices
Summary
References
Illustrations from International SFRs
Monju
Super Phenix (SPX1)
500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor
Summary
References
Commissioning Issues: Various Phases and Experiences
Fast Flux Test Facility
Phnéix
BN-600 Reactor Commissioning Experience
References
INTERNATIONAL SFR EXPERIENCES
SFR Program in Countries
Introduction
China
France
Germany
India
Japan
Korea
Russia
United States
References
Feedback from Operating Experiences
Introduction
Design Concepts
Material Behavior
Safety Experience
Operational Experience
References
Innovative Reactor Concepts for Future SFRs
Motivation, Strategies, and Approaches
INPRO: Closed Fuel Cycle with Fast Reactor (CNFC-FR)
Concepts Specific to Nations
References
FUEL CYCLE FOR SFRS
Fuel Cycle for SFRs
Introduction
Open and Closed Fuel Cycle
Closed Fuel Cycle for Fast Reactors
Fuel Types
Performance Requirements of Fast Reactor Fuels
Fuel Fabrication Processes
Fuel Reprocessing
Aqueous Reprocessing
Special Features of Fast Reactor Fuel Reprocessing
International Experience on Fast Reactor Fuel Reprocessing
Pyrochemical Reprocessing
Reprocessing of Carbide and Nitride Fuels
Partitioning of Minor Actinides
Waste Management for Fast Reactor Fuel Cycle
Fast Reactors and Minor Actinides Burning
Conclusion
References
DECOMMISSIONING ASPECTS
Decommissioning Aspects
Introduction
Major Difference between Decommissioning Aspects of SFR and PWR
Major Activities and Challenges Involved in Decommissioning of SFR
Technological Strategies
Experience and Feedback from Reactor Decommissioning
Summary
References
Bibliography
DOMAINS OF HIGH RELEVANCE TO SFR: TYPICAL EXAMPLES
Material Science and Metallurgy
Introduction
Core Structural Materials
Radiation-Resistant Steels
Ion Beam Simulation
Computer Simulation
Compatibility of Clad Material with Coolant and Fuel
Reactor Structural Materials
Steam Generator Materials
Hardfacing
Summary
References
Chemical Sensors for Sodium Coolant Circuits
Introduction
Sensors for Monitoring Dissolved Hydrogen in Liquid Sodium
Sensors for Monitoring Carbon Activity in Liquid Sodium
Sensors for Monitoring Oxygen in Liquid Sodium Systems
References
Robotics, Automation, and Sensors
Introduction
In-Service Inspection of Components of Fast Breeder Reactor
Remote Handing Tools and Robotic Devices for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities
Sensors for Robotics and Automation
Summary
References
Operator Training Simulators for Fast Breeder Reactors
Introduction
Types of Simulators
Operator Training Simulator
Basic Simulator Model
Design and Development of Training Simulator
Integration and Performance Testing
Verification and Validation of Training Simulator
Implementation
Configuration Management of Training Simulator
Reference Standards
ECONOMICS OF SFRS WITH A CLOSED FUEL CYCLE
Economics of SFRs with a Closed Fuel Cycle
Introduction
Overall Perception on the Economy of SFRs
Economic Assessment of International SFRs
Future Directions: Technological Challenges
Approach to Economics of SFR in India: A Case Study
References

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Author(s)

Biography

Baldev Raj, BE, Ph.D, served the Department of Atomic Energy, India over a 42-year period until 2011. As distinguished scientist and director, Indira Gandhi Centre of Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, India (IGCAR), he has advanced several challenging technologies, especially those related to the fast breeder test reactor and the prototype fast breeder reactor. Dr. Raj pioneered the application of nondestructive examination (NDE) for basic research using acoustic and electromagnetic techniques in a variety of materials and components. He is also responsible for realizing societal applications of NDE in areas related to cultural heritage and medical diagnosis. He is the author of more than 970 refereed publications, 70 books, and special journal volumes, and more than 20 contributions to encyclopedias and handbooks, as well as the owner of 29 patents. He is immediate past president, International Institute of Welding and President, Indian National Academy of Engineering. He assumed responsibilities as the director of the National Institute of Advanced Studies, Bangalore, India in September 2014. He is a fellow of all science and engineering academies in India; member of the German Academy of Sciences; honorary member of the International Medical Sciences Academy; member of the International Nuclear Energy Academy; vice president, nondestructive testing, Academia International; and president-elect of the International Council of Academies of Engineering and Technological Sciences.

P. Chellapandi, BE (Hons.), M.Tech., Ph.D, is currently a distinguished scientist and director of the Reactor Design Group at the IGCAR. He specializes in reactor design, thermal hydraulics, structural mechanics, safety analysis, and experimental simulations. He is one of the key persons involved in the design and development activities of the 500 MWe prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR) since its inception. He has contributed significantly for the PFBR over a wide spectrum of design, analysis, qualification, and research activities, also involving academic and R&D institutions in the country. His current responsibilities include design of advanced oxide and metallic fast breeder reactors planned by the department. He is a senior professor at Homi Bhabha National Institute and has published about 130 journal papers. He is a fellow at the Indian National Academy of Engineering. He is the recipient of the Homi Bhabha Science and Technology Award; the Indian Nuclear Society Award; the Vasvik Award; the National Design Award in Mechanical Engineering from Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers; the Agni Award for Excellence in Self-Reliance from Defence Research and Development Organization; the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) Group Achievement Award for the design, manufacture, and erection of PFBR reactor assembly components; and the Distinguished Alumnus Award from the Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai.

P.R. Vasudeva Rao, B.Sc., Ph.D, is the director of the IGCAR and the General Services Organization at Kalpakkam, India. After graduating from Vivekananda College, Chennai, India, he joined the DAE in the 16th batch of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre training school. He was instrumental in the setting up of the Radiochemistry Laboratory at the IGCAR. He is an expert in the area of fast reactor fuel cycle, especially the back-end fuel cycle. He is a recipient of the Indian Nuclear Society Award (2007) for his contributions to the area of nuclear fuel cycle technologies. He was selected for the Material Research Society of India (MRSI) medal lecture in 1998 and MRSI-ICSC Superconductivity and Materials Science Senior Award in 2011. He was also selected for the award of the Silver Medal by the Chemical Research Society of India in 2011. He is a senior professor at the Homi Bhabha National Institute. He has nearly 250 publications in peer-reviewed international journals. His areas of interest include the development of technologies for fast reactors and associated fuel cycles, actinide separations, and education in the field of chemical sciences.

Reviews

"…I think this book will be useful for students and post-graduate students having specializations in various areas of SFR technology. …Chapters include a lot of world experience related to SFR designing and construction and are well illustrated… I will be glad to have this book on my table."
—Yury Ashurko, State Scientific Centre of the Russian Federation – Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (SSC RF-IPPE)

"A comprehensive source book providing information about various aspects of fast reactors and their associated fuel cycles would be of significant value for experts, as well as for younger-generation professionals aspiring to take up challenging R&D programs in designing and building fast reactor systems. I am delighted that such a book on fast reactors has been made a reality by my colleagues, Dr. Baldev Raj, Dr. P. Chellapandi, and Dr. P.R. Vasudeva Rao. I congratulate them for their fine efforts in preparing this comprehensive treatise on this important subject."
—R.K. Sinha, Secretary, Department of Atomic Energy and Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission, Mumbai, India

"… provides authoritative information from a team that has recently built a fast reactor. … covers the full fuel cycle for sodium-cooled fast reactors and includes valuable construction experience. … a very important topic and the inclusion of the entire fuel cycle (including recycling) should make this book very valuable to the fast reactor professional community."
—Dr. Alan E. Waltar, Director, Nuclear Energy, Pacific Northwest National Lab, Richland, Washington, USA (Retired) and Professor and Head, Nuclear Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, USA (Retired)