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Soft Errors
From Particles to Circuits




ISBN 9781466590830
Published February 25, 2015 by CRC Press
439 Pages - 220 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Soft errors are a multifaceted issue at the crossroads of applied physics and engineering sciences. Soft errors are by nature multiscale and multiphysics problems that combine not only nuclear and semiconductor physics, material sciences, circuit design, and chip architecture and operation, but also cosmic-ray physics, natural radioactivity issues, particle detection, and related instrumentation.

Soft Errors: From Particles to Circuits addresses the problem of soft errors in digital integrated circuits subjected to the terrestrial natural radiation environment—one of the most important primary limits for modern digital electronic reliability. Covering the fundamentals of soft errors as well as engineering considerations and technological aspects, this robust text:

  • Discusses the basics of the natural radiation environment, particle interactions with matter, and soft-error mechanisms
  • Details instrumentation developments in the fields of environment characterization, particle detection, and real-time and accelerated tests
  • Describes the latest computational developments, modeling, and simulation strategies for the soft error-rate estimation in digital circuits
  • Explores trends for future technological nodes and emerging devices

Soft Errors: From Particles to Circuits presents the state of the art of this complex subject, providing comprehensive knowledge of the complete chain of the physics of soft errors. The book makes an ideal text for introductory graduate-level courses, offers academic researchers a specialized overview, and serves as a practical guide for semiconductor industry engineers or application engineers.

Table of Contents

Foreword

Preface

Acknowledgments

Authors

Editor

Introduction

Glossary

ENVIRONMENTS: DEFINITION AND METROLOGY

Terrestrial Cosmic Rays and Atmospheric Radiation Background

Primary Cosmic Rays

Historical Background

Extragalactic and Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs)

Solar Wind and Solar Energetic Particles

Magnetospheric Cosmic Rays

Secondary Cosmic Rays in the Atmosphere and at Ground Level

Development of Air Showers

Modulation Factors of Particle Production in the Atmosphere and at Ground Level

Radiation Environment at Ground Level (Particles, Flux, Variations, Shielding)

Particle Fluxes at Sea Level

Flux Variations

Shielding Issues

Synthesis

Tools, Codes, and Models to Simulate Atmospheric and Terrestrial CRs

SEUTEST

EXPACS (PARMA Model)

QARM

CORSIKA

PLANETOCOSMICS

CRY

References

Detection and Characterization of Atmospheric Neutrons at Terrestrial Level: Neutron Monitors

Neutron Monitors (NM)

Historical Background

Neutron Monitor Design and Operation

Neutron Monitor Detection Response

Plateau de Bure Neutron Monitor

PdBNM Design

PdBNM Installation and Operation

Connection to the Neutron Monitor Database

PdBNM Monte Carlo Simulation

Concluding Remarks

References

Natural Radioactivity of Electronic Materials

Radioactivity

Radioactive Decay

Alpha-Particle Emission

Radioactive Nuclides in Nature

Primordial Radionuclides

Uranium Decay Chain

Thorium Decay Chain

Cosmic-Ray-Produced Radionuclides

Radon

Radionuclides and Radioactive Contamination in Advanced CMOS Technologies

Alpha Radiation from Interconnect Metallization and Packaging Materials

Emissivity Model

Analytical Model for Monolayers

Analytical Model for Multilayer Stack

Universal Nomogram for Bulk Silicon

References

Alpha-Radiation Metrology in Electronic Materials

Introduction

Alpha-Particle Detection Techniques: Terms and Definitions

Gas-Filled Counters

Principle of Operation

Ionization Counters

Proportional Counters

Ultralow-Background Alpha Counter

Design and Operation of the UltraLo-1800

Signal Generation and Rejection

Pulse and Event Classification

Cosmogenics and Radon Issues

Example of Measurements

Multicenter Comparison of Alpha-Particle Measurements

Other Techniques

Silicon Alpha Detectors

Liquid and Solid-State Scintillators

ICP-MS and VPD ICP-MS

References

SOFT ERRORS: MECHANISMS AND CHARACTERIZATION

Particle Interactions with Matter and Mechanisms of Soft Errors in Semiconductor Circuits

Interactions of Neutrons with Matter

Cross Section

Types of Neutron–Matter Interactions

Recoil Products

Interaction of Thermal Neutrons with 10B

Atmospheric Neutron–Silicon Interaction Databases

Interactions of Charged Particles with Matter

Ionization

Stopping Power

Range

Alpha Particles

Heavy Ions

Electrons

Interaction of Protons with Matter

Interaction of Pions with Matter

Interaction of Muons with Matter

Basic Mechanisms of Single-Event Effects on Microelectronic Devices

Charge Deposition (or Generation)

Charge Transport

Charge Collection

SEU Mechanisms in Memories (Single-Bit Upset and Multiple-Cell Upset)

SEE Mechanisms in Digital Circuits

Sequential Logic

Combinational Logic

References

Accelerated Tests

Introduction

Methodology and Test Protocols

SEU Cross Section

Test Equipment Requirements

Test Plan

Test Conditions

Experiments Using Intense Beams of Particles

High-Energy Neutrons

Thermal Neutrons

Protons

Muons

Alpha-Particle Accelerated Tests Using Solid Sources

Evaluation of Various Neutron Broad-Spectrum Sources from a Simulation Viewpoint

Simulation Details

Nuclear Event Analysis

Implications for the Soft-Error Rate

References

Real-Time (Life) Testing

Introduction

Real-Time Testing Methodology

Instrumentation Issues

Differentiation of the SER Components

Statistics for RTSER: Typical Example

Metrology of Atmospheric Neutron Flux

Survey of a Few Recent RTSER Experiments

IBM

Intel

Sony

Tohoku University, Hitachi, and Renesas Electronics

Cypress

Xilinx

NXP

RTSER Experiments Conducted at ASTEP and LSM

ASTEP and LSM Test Platforms

RTSER Experiments

Comparison with Accelerated Tests

References

SOFT ERRORS: MODELING AND SIMULATION ISSUES

Modeling and Simulation of Single-Event Effects in Devices and Circuits

Interest in Modeling and Simulation

Main Approaches of Electrical Simulation at Device Level

Main Simulation Approaches at Circuit Level

Device-Level Simulation

Transport Models

Emerging Physical Effects

TCAD Simulation

Analytical and Compact Model Approaches

Circuit-Level Simulation Approaches

SPICE-Like Circuit Simulation

Mixed-Mode Approach

Full Numerical Simulation in the 3D Device Domain

References

Soft-Error Rate (SER) Monte Carlo Simulation Codes

General-Purpose Monte Carlo Radiation-Transport Codes

Review of Recent Monte Carlo Codes Dedicated to the SER Issue

Intel Radiation Tool (IRT)

PHITS-HyENEXSS Code System

TIARA-G4

Detailed Description of the TIARA-G4 Code

Circuit Architecture Construction Module

Radiation-Event Generator

Interaction, Transport, and Tracking Module

SRAM Electrical-Response Module

Soft-Error Rate Calculation Module

Experimental versus Simulation Results: Discussion

Impact of Thermal and Low-Energy Neutrons on a 40 nm SRAM Circuit

Comparison between TIARA and TIARA-G4: Impact of the BEOL on the SER

SER Estimation of a 65 nm SRAM under High-Energy Atmospheric Neutrons

Effects of Low-Energy Muons on a 65 nm SRAM Circuit

References

SOFT ERRORS IN EMERGING DEVICES AND CIRCUITS

Scaling Effects and Their Implications for Soft Errors

Introduction

Feature-Size Scaling

Geometric Scaling

Ion-Track Spatial Structure versus Device Dimensions

Carrier Channeling in Wells and Electrical Related Effects

Variability and SEE

Critical Charge

Increasing Sensitivity to Background Radiation

Low-Energy Protons

Atmospheric Muons

Low-Alpha-Material Issue

Trends and Summary for Ultrascaled Technologies

References

Natural Radiation in Nonvolatile Memories: A Case Study

Introduction

Flash Memory Architectures and Electrical Operation

NOR Architecture

NAND Architecture

Radiation Effects in Floating-Gate Memories

Modeling and Simulation of Nonvolatile Memories Using TIARA-G4 Platform

Description of TIARA-G4 NVM Platform

Physical Model Considered

Simulation Results

Experimental Characterization

Experimental versus Simulation Results: Discussion

References

SOI, FinFET, and Emerging Devices

Introduction

Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) Technologies

SEE Mechanisms in SOI Technologies

3D Simulation Study of Radiation Response of 50 nm FDSOI Devices

SEU Sensitivity of FDSOI SRAM Cells

Multiple-Gate Devices

Impact of Quantum Effects

Transient Response of Multiple-Gate Devices

Radiation Hardness of Circuits Based on Multiple-Gate Devices

Bulk and SOI FinFET

Multichannel Architectures with Multiple-Gate Devices

Multiple-Gate and Multichannel Devices with Independent Gates

Simulation Details

FinFET Devices

MC-NWFET Devices

Comparison between FinFET and MC-NWFET Devices

Junctionless Devices

Simulation Details

Radiation Sensitivity of Individual Devices

SEU Sensitivity of SRAM Cells

III–V FinFET and Tunnel FET

References

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Author(s)

Biography

Jean-Luc Autran is distinguished professor of physics and electrical engineering at Aix-Marseille University and honorary member of the University Institute of France (IUF). He is also deputy director of the Institute for Materials, Microelectronics, and Nanosciences of Provence (IM2NP, UMR CNRS 7334) and the principal investigator of the Altitude Single-event effects Test European Platform (ASTEP). He is the author or coauthor of more than 300 papers published in international journals and conferences, a senior member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), and a fellow of the Société de l’Electricité, de l’Electronique et des Technologies de l’Information et de la Communication (SEE).

Daniela Munteanu is director of research at the National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS). She is a fellow researcher at the Institute for Materials, Microelectronics, and Nanoscience of Provence (IM2NP, UMR CNRS 7334) and has 15 years of experience in characterization, modeling, and simulation of semiconductor devices. Her current research interests include emerging complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices, compact modeling, numerical simulation in the domains of nanoelectronics, and radiation effects on components and circuits. She is also the author or coauthor of more than 200 papers published in international journals and conferences, and has supervised 12 Ph.D theses.

Reviews

"Soft Errors: From Particles to Circuits covers all aspects of the design, use, application, performance, and testing of parts, devices, and systems and addresses every perspective from an engineering, scientific, or physical point of view. … Many good texts have been written on similar subjects, but none as thorough, as clear, and as complete as this volume. … [The authors] have mastered the past, absorbed the present, and captured the trends of the future in one of the most important technologies of our time. … An extremely useful text that has succeeded in presenting with clarity a complex reality in accessible, understandable, and helpful terms."
—Epaminondas G. Stassinopoulos, Emeritus, NASA/GSFC, USA

"The few radiation effects books out there are focused on space environments or simply on MOSFET degradation. This book…is focused on the terrestrial environment and goes from basic physics and devices to final product applications, and thus should appeal to a much broader audience than other texts. … This book goes a long way in educating future and existing engineers on how to determine the causes and magnitude of the problems in such systems. … [This book’s strengths are its] focus on the terrestrial environment and the breadth of coverage from particle to device including characterization and modeling techniques."
—Robert Baumann, Texas Instruments, Dallas, USA