Climate change, rapid population growth and urbanization are causing water shortage and pollution, especially in arid and semi-arid regions of the world due to the growing demand in different sectors and disposal of inadequately treated wastewater to water bodies. To tackle these challenges, further treatment and reuse of wastewater effluent using soil aquifer treatment (SAT) is an attractive cost-effective and environmentally friendly option that is employed with no intensive use of electricity and chemicals.
This study highlights the prospects of using SAT for treatment and reuse of primary effluent (PE), especially in developing countries where wastewater is not treated to secondary and tertiary effluent levels due to lack of investment and operation costs to run sizable wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Coupled with experimental studies that show SAT efficiency to remove suspended solids, bulk organic matter, nutrients and pathogens indicators from PE, the thesis provides step-by-step tools that could be used for development of new SAT scheme. Furthermore, the study provides a water quality prediction model that estimates the potential contaminants removal which could be used to assess the need for reclaimed water post-treatment.
This thesis is envisaged to contribute to the current knowledge on the necessity of water reuse.
2. Soil aquifer treatment (SAT): site design, selection, operation and maintenance
3. Effect of pre-treatment of primary effluent using aluminum sulfate and iron chloride on removal of suspended solids, bulk organic matter, nutrients and pathogens indicators
4. Impact of hydraulic loading rate and soil type on removal of bulk organic matter and nitrogen from primary effluent in laboratory-scale soil aquifer treatment system
5. Influence of wetting and drying cycles on removal of suspended solids, bulk organic matter, nutrients and pathogens indicators from primary effluent in managed aquifer recharge
6. Effect of biological activity on removal of bulk organic matter, nitrogen and pharmaceutically active compounds from primary effluent
7. Effects of temperature and redox conditions on attenuation of bulk organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and pathogens indicators during managed aquifer recharge
8. Framework for site selection, design, operation and maintenance of soil aquifer treatment (SAT) system
9. Summary and conclusions
IHE Delft PhD programme leads to a deepening of a field of specialisation. PhD fellows do scientific research, often with conclusions that directly influence their region. At IHE Delft, PhD researchers from around the world participate in problem-focused and solution-oriented research on development issues, resulting in an inspiring research environment. PhD fellows work together with other researchers from many countries dealing with topics related to water and the environment.
PhD research is often carried out in the ‘sandwich’ model. Preparation and final reporting – the first and last portion of the programme – are carried out in Delft, while actual research is done in the fellow’s home country, under co-supervision of a local institute. Regular contacts with the promotor are maintained through visits and long-distance communication. This enables researchers to employ solutions directly to problems in their geographical region.
IHE Delft PhD degrees are awarded jointly with a university. The degrees are highly valued and fully recognised in all parts of the world.