1st Edition

Solar Energy Sciences and Engineering Applications

Edited By Napoleon Enteria, Aliakbar Akbarzadeh Copyright 2014
    692 Pages 220 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    692 Pages 220 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Solar energy is available all over the world in different intensities. Theoretically, the solar energy available on the surface of the earth is enough to support the energy requirements of the entire planet. However, in reality, progress and development of solar science and technology depends to a large extent on human desires and needs. This is due to the various barriers to overcome and to deal with the economics of practical utilization of solar energy.

    This book introduces the rapid development and progress in the field of solar energy applications for science and technology: the advancement in the field of biological processes & chemical processes; electricity production; and mechanical operations & building operations enhanced by solar energy.

    The volume covers bio-hydrogen production and other biological processes related to solar energy; chemical processes for the production of hydrogen from water and other endothermic processes using solar energy; the development of thermo-electric production through solar energy; the development of solar ponds for electric energy production; and the mechanical operation with solar energy; the building operation with solar energy optimization and urban planning.

    This book is an invaluable resource for scientists who need the scientific and technological knowledge of the wide coverage of solar energy sciences and engineering applications. This will further encourage researchers, scientists, engineers and students to stimulate the use of solar energy as an alternative energy source.

    1 Physics of solar energy and its applications
    Napoleon Enteria & Aliakbar Akbarzadeh
    1.1 Introduction
    1.2 Solar energy and energy demand
    1.3 Solar energy utilizations
    1.4 Perspective

    2 Exergy analysis of solar radiation processes
    Ryszard Petela
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Exergy
    2.2.1 Definition of exergy
    2.2.2 Exergy annihilation law
    2.2.3 Exergy of substance
    2.2.4 Exergy of photon gas
    2.2.5 Exergy of radiation emission
    2.2.6 Exergy of radiation flux
    2.3 Thermodynamic analysis
    2.3.1 Significance of thermodynamic analysis
    2.3.2 Energy balance equations
    2.3.3 Exergy balance equations
    2.3.4 Process efficiency
    2.4 Solar radiation processes
    2.4.1 Conversion of solar radiation into heat
    2.4.2 Solar cylindrical-parabolic cooker
    2.4.3 Solar chimney power plant
    2.4.4 Photosynthesis
    2.4.5 Photovoltaic

    3 Exergy analysis of solar energy systems
    Ibrahim Dincer & Tahir Abdul Hussain Ratlamwala
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Energy and exergy aspects and analyses
    3.3 Case studies
    3.3.1 Case study 1: Exergy analysis of an integrated solar, ORC system for power production
    3.3.2 Case study 2: Exergy analysis of solar photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) system for power and heat production
    3.3.3 Case study 3: Exergy assessment of an integrated solar PV/T and triple effect absorption cooling system for hydrogen and cooling production
    3.4 Concluding remarks

    4 Solar energy collection and storage
    Brian Norton
    4.1 Solar thermal energy collectors
    4.1.1 Overview
    4.1.2 Flat plate solar energy collectors
    4.1.3 Evacuated tube collectors
    4.1.4 Collector components
    4.2 Integral collector storage systems
    4.2.1 Integral passive solar water heaters
    4.2.2 Salt gradient solar ponds
    4.3 Concentrators
    4.3.1 Introduction
    4.3.2 Concentration systems
    4.4 Solar water heating
    4.4.1 Overview
    4.4.2 Applicability of particular collector types to specific outlet temperatures and diffuse fractions
    4.4.3 Freeze protection methods
    4.4.4 Sensible and latent heat storage
    4.4.5 Analytical representation of thermosyphon solar energy water heater
    4.4.6 Solar water heater design
    4.5 Solar energy collection and storage for drying crops
    4.6 Solar energy collector and storage for thermal power generation
    4.7 Overall system optimization

    5 Basics of the photovoltaic thermal module
    Krishnan Sumathy
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 PV/T devices
    5.2.1 Liquid PV/T collector
    5.2.2 Air PV/T collector
    5.2.3 Ventilated PV with heat recovery
    5.2.4 PV/T concentrator
    5.3 PV/T module concepts
    5.3.1 Different types of PV/T modules
    5.4 Techniques to inprove PV/T performance
    5.5 Conclusion

    6 Thermal modelling of parabolic trough collectors
    Soteris Kalogirou
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 The energy model
    6.2.1 Convection heat transfer between the HTF and the receiver pipe
    6.2.2 Conduction heat transfer through the receiver pipe wall
    6.2.3 Heat transfer from the receiver pipe to the glass envelope
    6.2.4 Conduction heat transfer through the glass envelope
    6.2.5 Heat transfer from the glass envelope to the atmosphere
    6.2.6 Solar irradiation absorption
    6.3 Code testing
    6.4 Conclusions

    7 Salinity gradient solar ponds
    Abhijit Date & Aliakbar Akbarzadeh
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Solar pond – design philosophy
    7.2.1 Sustainable use of resources
    7.2.2 Best site characteristics
    7.2.3 Performance and sizing
    7.2.4 Liner, salt and water
    7.2.5 Transient performance prediction
    7.3 Solar pond – construction and operation
    7.3.1 Set-up and maintenance
    7.3.2 Turbidity control
    7.3.3 Heat extraction
    7.3.4 Performance monitoring
    7.3.5 EEE (Energy, Environmental and Economic) benefit evaluation
    7.4 Solar ponds – worldwide
    7.4.1 Solar ponds – Israel
    7.4.2 Solar ponds – Australia
    7.4.3 Solar ponds – USA
    7.4.4 Solar ponds – Tibet, China
    7.4.5 Solar ponds – India
    7.5 Solar ponds – applications
    7.5.1 Heating
    7.5.2 Aquaculture
    7.5.3 Desalination
    7.5.4 Power production
    7.6 Future directions

    8 The solar thermal electrochemical production of energetic molecules: Step
    Stuart Licht
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 Solar thermal electrochemical production of energetic molecules: An overview
    8.2.1 STEP theoretical background
    8.2.2 STEP solar to chemical energy conversion efficiency
    8.2.3 Identification of STEP consistent endothermic processes
    8.3 Demonstrated step processes
    8.3.1 STEP hydrogen
    8.3.2 STEP carbon capture
    8.3.3 STEP iron
    8.3.4 STEP chlorine and magnesium production (chloride electrolysis)
    8.4 Step constraints
    8.4.1 STEP limiting equations
    8.4.2 Predicted STEP efficiencies for solar splitting of CO2
    8.4.3 Scaleability of STEP processes
    8.5 Conclusions

    9 Solar hydrogen production and CO2 recycling
    Zhaolin Wang & Greg F. Naterer
    9.1 Sustainable fuels with solar-based hyrogen production and carbon dioxide recycling
    9.2 Solar-based hydrogen production with water splitting methods
    9.2.1 Solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of water splitting processes
    9.2.2 Matching the temperature requirements of solar-based hydrogen production methods
    9.2.3 Thermolysis, thermal decomposition and thermochemical methods
    9.2.4 Water electrolysis
    9.2.5 Photoelectrolysis and photoelectrochemical water splitting
    9.2.6 Photochemical, photocatalytic, photodissociation, photodecomposition, and photolysis
    9.2.7 Hybrid and other hydrogen production methods
    9.3 Solar-based CO2 recycling with hydrogen
    9.4 Summary

    10 Photoelectrochemical cells for hydrogen production from solar energy
    Tania Lopes, Luisa Andrade & Adelio Mendes
    10.1 Introduction
    10.2 Photoelectrochemical cells systems overview
    10.2.1 Solar water-splitting arrangements
    10.2.2 Working principles of photoelectrochemical cells for water-splitting
    10.2.3 Materials overview
    10.2.4 Stability issues – photocorrosion
    10.2.5 PEC reactors
    10.3 Electrochemical impendance spectroscopy
    10.3.1 Fundamentals
    10.3.2 Electrical analogues
    10.3.3 EIS analysis of PEC cells for water-splitting
    10.4 Fundamentals in electrochemistry applied to photoelectrochemical cells
    10.4.1 Semiconductor energy
    10.4.2 Continuity and kinetic equations
    10.5 Pec cells bottlenecks and future prospects

    11 Photobiohydrogen production and high-performance photobioreactor
    Qiang Liao, Cheng-Long Guo, Rong Chen, Xun Zhu & Yong-Zhong Wang
    11.1 Introduction
    11.2 General description of photobiohydrogen production
    11.2.1 Photoautotrophic hydrogen production
    11.2.2 Photoheterotrophic hydrogen production
    11.2.3 Critical issues in photobiohydrogen production
    11.3 Genetic and metabolic engineering
    11.4 High-performance photobioreactor
    11.4.1 Modification of photobioreactor configurations
    11.4.2 Optimization of the operating parameters
    11.4.3 Application of cell immobilization
    11.5 Challenges and future directions

    12 Decontamination of water by combined solar advanced oxidation processes and biotreatment
    Sixto Malato, Isabel Oller, Pilar Fernández-Ibáñez & Manuel Ignacio Maldonado
    12.1 Introduction
    12.2 Solar photo-fenton
    12.2.1 Solar photo-Fenton hardware
    12.3 Strategy for combining solar advanced oxidation processes and biotreatment
    12.3.1 Average oxidation state
    12.3.2 Activated sludge respirometry
    12.3.3 Zahn-Wellens test
    12.3.4 Factors to be considered in designing a combined system
    12.4 Combining solar advanced oxidation processes and biotreatment: Case studies
    12.4.1 Case study A: An unsuccessful AOP/biological process
    12.4.2 Case study B: A successful AOP/biological process

    13 Solar driven advanced oxidation processes for water decontamination and disinfection
    Erick R. Bandala & Brian W. Raichle
    13.1 Introduction
    13.2 Solar radiation collection for AOPs applications
    13.3 Solar homogenous photocatalysis
    13.3.1 Degradation of organic pollutants by solar driven photo-Fenton processes
    13.3.2 Microorganisms inactivation by solar driven photo-Fenton processes
    13.4 Solar heterogenous photocatalysis
    13.4.1 Degradation of organic pollutants by solar driven heterogeneous photocatalysis
    13.4.2 Microorganisms inactivation by solar driven heterogeneous photocatalysis
    13.5 Challenges and perspectives
    13.5.1 Photorreactor design
    13.5.2 Suspended vs. immobilized photocatalyst
    13.5.3 Visible light active photocatalyst materials
    13.6 Conclusions

    14 Solar energy conversion with thermal cycles
    Giampaolo Manzolini & Paolo Silva
    14.1 Introduction
    14.2 Solar concentration concept in thermal systems
    14.3 Concentrating solar technologies
    14.3.1 Linear focus
    14.3.2 Parabolic trough
    14.3.3 Reflectors
    14.3.4 Heat collection element
    14.3.5 Structure
    14.3.6 Parabolic trough performance
    14.3.7 Linear fresnel
    14.3.8 Heat collection element
    14.3.9 Reflectors
    14.3.10 Linear Fresnel performance
    14.3.11 Cost comparison of linear focus technologies
    14.3.12 Point focus
    14.3.13 Central receiver systems
    14.3.14 Collector field
    14.3.15 Central receiver
    14.3.16 Solar dish
    14.3.17 Receiver
    14.3.18 Power system
    14.4 Heat transfer fluids and storage
    14.4.1 Heat transfer fluids
    14.4.2 Storage
    14.5 From heat to power
    14.5.1 Rankine cycle
    14.5.2 Rankine cycle performance
    14.5.3 Stirling cycle
    14.5.4 Stirling configurations
    14.5.5 Stirling working fluids
    14.6 Economics and future perspectives

    15 Solar hybrid air-conditioning design for buildings in hot and humid climates
    Kwong-Fai Fong
    15.1 Introduction
    15.2 Design approaches of solar air-conditioning
    15.2.1 The solar-electric approach
    15.2.2 The solar-thermal approach
    15.2.3 A hybrid approach to system design
    15.2.4 A hybrid approach to energy sources and system design
    15.3 Performance evaluation of various solar air-conditioning systems
    15.3.1 Principal solar-thermal air-conditioning systems
    15.3.2 SHAC with load sharing
    15.3.3 SHAc with radiant cooling
    15.3.4 SHAC coordinated with new indoor ventilation strategies
    15.3.5 SHAC for premises with high latent load
    15.4 Application potential of SHAC in various hot and humid cities in southeast asia
    15.5 Conclusion and future development

    16 Solar-desiccant air-conditioning systems
    Napoleon Enteria
    16.1 Introduction
    16.1.1 Energy and environment
    16.1.2 The building environment
    16.2 The basic concept
    16.2.1 Thermodynamic processes
    16.2.2 Advantages of the open systems
    16.2.3 Desiccant materials
    16.3 Solid-based system
    16.3.1 Basic concept
    16.3.2 Typical systems
    16.3.3 Modified systems
    16.3.4 Hybrid systems
    16.4 Liquid-based system
    16.4.1 Basic concept
    16.4.2 Typical systems
    16.4.3 Modified systems
    16.4.4 Hybrid systems
    16.5 System application
    16.5.1 Countries
    16.5.2 Temperate regions
    16.5.3 Sub-temperate regions
    16.5.4 Hot and humid regions
    16.6 Future and perspectives

    17 Building integrated concentrating solar systems
    Daniel Chemisana & Tapas K. Mallick
    17.1 Introduction to building integration of solar energy systems
    17.1.1 Solar thermal systems and building integration requirements
    17.1.2 Solar photovoltaic systems and building integration requirements
    17.2 Building integrated concentrating systems
    17.2.1 Physics of concentrating solar system
    17.2.2 Types of concentrators
    17.2.3 Building integrated concentrating photovoltaics
    17.2.4 Building integrated solar thermal (concentrating)
    17.2.5 Concentrating systems and building integration requirements
    17.3 Conclusions

    18 Solar energy use in buildings
    Ursula Eicker
    18.1 Introduction
    18.2 Passive solar gains in cold and moderate climatic regions
    18.2.1 Passive solar gains by glazing
    18.3 Total energy transmittance of glazing
    18.4 New glazing systems
    18.5 Transparent thermal insulation (TTI)
    18.6 Operational principle of transparent thermal insulation
    18.7 Materials used and construction
    18.8 Heat storage by interior building elements
    18.9 Component temperatures for sudden temperature increases
    18.10 Solar gains, shading strategies and air conditioning of buildings
    18.11 Influence of the urban form on solar energy use in buildings
    18.12 Residential buildings in an urban context
    18.13 Site density effect and urban shading in moderate climates
    18.14 Climate effect
    18.15 Solar gains and glazing
    18.16 Office buildings in an urban context

    19 The contribution of bioclimatic architecture in the improvement of outdoor urban spaces
    Konstantina Vasilakopoulou, Dionysia Kolokotsa & Mattheos Santamouris
    19.1 Introduction
    19.2 Mitigation strategies
    19.2.1 Planted areas
    19.2.2 Cool materials
    19.2.3 Shadings
    19.2.4 Thermal sinks
    19.2.5 Combination and interplay of mitigation strategies
    19.3 Experimental analysis of outdoor spaces
    19.3.1 Assessment of outdoor comfort conditions
    19.3.2 Assessment of bioclimatic technologies
    19.4 Conclusions and future prospects

    20 Legislation to foment the use of renewable energies and solar thermal energy in building construction: The case of Spain
    Javier Ordoñez
    20.1 Introduction
    20.2 European regulatory framework for renewable energy sources in the context of the energy performance of buildings
    20.3 Application of EU regulations in member states: The case in spain
    20.3.1 National action plan for renewable energies
    20.3.2 Basic procedure for the certification of energy efficiency
    20.3.3 The spanish technical building code
    20.3.4 Spanish regulations for thermal installations in buildings
    20.4 The solar thermal system
    20.5 The spanish technical building code as a legal means to foment the use of renewable energies in building construction
    20.6 Measures to foment the use of renewable energies: Government incentives
    20.7 Economic impact of solar thermal energy
    20.8 Conclusions

    Subject index


    Napoleon Enteria, Aliakbar Akbarzadeh