1st Edition

Solar Radiation Practical Modeling for Renewable Energy Applications

By Daryl Ronald Myers Copyright 2013
    210 Pages 33 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    210 Pages 33 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Written by a leading scientist with over 35 years of experience working at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Solar Radiation: Practical Modeling for Renewable Energy Applications brings together the most widely used, easily implemented concepts and models for estimating broadband and spectral solar radiation data. The author addresses various technical and practical questions about the accuracy of solar radiation measurements and modeling.

    While the focus is on engineering models and results, the book does review the fundamentals of solar radiation modeling and solar radiation measurements. It also examines the accuracy of solar radiation modeling and measurements. The majority of the book describes the most popular simple models for estimating broadband and spectral solar resources available to flat plate, concentrating, photovoltaic, solar thermal, and daylighting engineering designs. Sufficient detail is provided for readers to implement the models in assorted development environments.

    Covering the nuts and bolts of practical solar radiation modeling applications, this book helps readers translate solar radiation data into viable, real-world renewable energy applications. It answers many how-to questions relating to solar energy conversion systems, solar daylighting, energy efficiency of buildings, and other solar radiation applications.

    Fundamentals of Solar Radiation
    The Sun as a Star
    The Earth and the Sun
    Solar Time and Solar Position
    Solar Components
    Clearness Index

    Introduction to Solar Radiation Measurements
    Overview of Detector Technology
    Pyrheliometers: Measuring Direct Normal Irradiance
    Pyranometers: Measuring Hemispherical Radiation
    Spectral Distributions
    Measurement Networks

    Modeling Clear Sky Solar Radiation
    The Atmospheric Filter
    Physics-Based Models
    Empirical Models
    Parameterization Models

    Modeling Global Irradiance under All Sky Conditions
    Simple Correlation Models
    Empirical All Sky Radiation Models
    All Sky Solar Radiation from Weather Satellites
    The Future: Forecasting Solar Radiation

    Modeling Missing Components
    Estimating Diffuse from Global Horizontal Irradiance
    Estimating Direct from Global Normal Irradiance

    Applications: Modeling Solar Radiation Available to Collectors
    Solar Collector Geometries
    Isotropic Models
    Anisotropic Models
    The Perez Anisotropic Tilt Conversion Model

    Introduction to Modeling Spectral Distributions
    The Spectral Atmospheric Filter
    Renewable Energy Applications for Spectral Data and Models
    Complex Spectral Models
    Standard Spectral Distributions
    CIE Spectral Model—Illuminant D65 and Daylight
    Bird Clear Sky Spectral Model SPCTRL2
    Gueymard Clear Sky Spectral Model SMARTS
    SPCTRL2 and SMARTS for ASTM Standard Reference Conditions
    Spectral Distributions under All Sky Conditions

    Introduction to Modeling Daylight
    Illuminance versus Irradiance
    Applications of Daylight Data and Models
    The Perez Anisotropic Illuminance Model
    International Commission on Illumination Models
    Sky Luminance Model Accuracy
    Other Sky Luminance Distribution Models
    Other Reading

    Summary and Future Prospects
    Overview of the Modeling Chapters
    Current Issues and Future Prospects

    Appendix A: Bird Clear Sky Model in Excel
    Appendix B: Excel Structure for DISC Model of Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) from Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI)
    Appendix C: Tables for CIE D65 Reference Spectrum and Spectral Daylight Temperature Model

    Appendix D: SPCTRL2 FORTRAN Source Code
    Appendix E: Photopic Response Function V(λ) Curve

    Appendix F: Perez Anisotropic Model Coefficients for Luminous Efficacy and Zenith Luminance Model

    A Summary and References appear at the end of each chapter.


    Daryl R. Myers worked as a senior scientist at the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for 37 years before retiring in 2011. He contributed to the development of many national solar radiometry consensus standards, the U.S. National Solar Radiation Data Base, and joint satellite data validation projects. He is the author or coauthor of 160 technical publications.

    This work provides a unique balance of a theoretical treatment and practical application for a broad readership interested in learning and using the latest information on solar radiation modeling. The scope is comprehensive, giving the reader everything from the subject fundamentals to the numerical recipes and technical references for further study. The treatment of uncertainty and the ‘modeler’s toolbox’ formed by the appendices are reason enough to have this book.
    This is a timely publication for understanding and applying solar resource characterization … a uniquely comprehensive treatment of the many aspects of modeling broadband and spectral solar irradiance at the Earth’s surface. The numerical recipes for modeling solar radiation under clear and cloudy sky conditions make this a very practical reference as well as a useful introduction to the subject. The balanced content is exemplified by the treatment of solar measurements and measurement uncertainty that are key factors in the development and validation of models.
    —Tom Stoffel, U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    … a relevant and well-structured tour through the ever-increasing array of radiometric modeling techniques available to researchers. … an indispensable guide to practitioners and teachers by one of the leading authorities on solar resource modeling. Students will appreciate the worked examples. … It offers a thorough and long-overdue summary of solar radiometric modeling from one of the most experienced authorities in the field.
    —Michael Brooks, University of KwaZulu-Natal

    The book gives a unique overview of the models used in the solar radiation community. … even the more complex models are shown in all details. … This is a good textbook for students who want to understand and reproduce the models used in solar radiation modeling nowadays.
    —Jan Remund, Meteotest

    For people looking for better information to understand solar radiation science, measuring techniques, instrumentation uncertainties, and modeling of solar radiation under different orientation and sky conditions, I recommend this book.
    —Alemu Tadesse, SunEdison