Solidification, Second Edition: 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Solidification, Second Edition

2nd Edition

By Jonathan Dantzig, Michel Rappaz

EPFL Press

736 pages | 320 Color Illus. | 36 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9782940222971
pub: 2017-05-17
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Description

Solidification is one of the oldest processes for producing complex shapes for applications ranging from art to industry, and remains as one of the most important commercial processes for many materials. Since the 1980s, numerous fundamental developments in the understanding of solidification processes and microstructure formation have come from both analytical theories and the application of computational techniques using commonly available powerful computers. This book integrates these developments in a comprehensive volume that also presents and places them in the context of more classical theories. This second edition highlights the key concepts within each chapter to help guide the reader through the most important aspects of the topics. The figures are now in color, in order to improve the visualization of phenomena and concepts. Recent important developments in the field since the first edition was published have also been added.

The three-part text is aimed at graduate and professional engineers. The first part, Fundamentals and Macroscale Phenomena, presents the thermodynamics of solutions and then builds on that subject to motivate and describe equilibrium phase diagrams. Transport phenomena are discussed next, focusing on the issues of most importance to liquid-solid phase transformations, then moving on to describing in detail both analytical and numerical approaches to solving such problems. The second part, Microstructure, employs these fundamental concepts for the treatment of nucleation, dendritic growth, microsegregation, eutectic and peritectic solidification, and microstructure competition. This part concludes with a chapter describing the coupling of macro- and microscopic phenomena in microstructure development. The third and final part describes various types of Defects that may occur, with emphasis on porosity, hot tearing and macrosegregation, presented using the modeling tools and microstructure descriptions developed earlier.

Table of Contents

Overview

Introduction

Solidification processes

References

PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS AND MACROSCALE PHENOMENA

Thermodynamics

Introduction

Thermodynamics of unary systems

Binary alloys

Departure from equilibrium

Exercises

References

Phase diagrams

Motivation

Binary systems

Ternary systems

Exercises

References

Balance Equations

Introduction

Mass balance

Momentum balance

Energy balance

Solute balance in multicomponent systems

Scaling

Exercises

References

Analytical solutions for solidification

Introduction

Solidification in a superheated melt

Solidification in an undercooled melt

The effect of curvature

Exercises

References

Numerical methods for solidification

Introduction

Heat conduction without phase change

Heat conduction with phase change

Fluid flow

Optimization and inverse methods

Exercises

References

PART II MICROSTRUCTURE

Nucleation

Introduction

Homogeneous nucleation

Heterogeneous nucleation

Mechanisms for grain refinement

Exercises

References

Dendritic growth

Introduction

Free growth

Constrained growth

Growth of a needle crystal

Convection and dendritic growth

Phase-field methods

Exercises

References

Eutectics, peritectics and microstructure selection

Introduction

Eutectics

Peritectics

Phase selection and coupled zone

Exercises

References

Microsegregation and homogenization

Introduction

1-D microsegregation models for binary alloys

Homogenization and solution treatment

Multicomponent alloys

Exercises

References

Macro- and microstructures

Introduction

Equiaxed grains growing in a uniform temperature field

Grains nucleating and growing in a thermal gradient

Columnar grains

Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition

Micro-macroscopic models

Exercises

References

PART III DEFECTS

Porosity

Introduction

Governing equations

Interdendritic fluid flow and pressure drop

Thermodynamics of gases in solution

Nucleation and growth of pores

Boundary conditions

Application of the concepts

Exercises

References

Deformation during solidification and hot tearing

Introduction

Thermomechanics of castings

Deformation of the mushy zone

Hot tearing

Hot tearing criteria and models

Exercises

References

Macrosegregation

Introduction

Macrosegregation during planar front solidification

Composition field and governing equations

Macrosegregation induced by solidification shrinkage

Macrosegragation induced by fluid flow

Macrosegregation induced by solid movement

Exercises

References

About the Authors

Jonathan A. Dantzig is a Professor Emeritus at the University of Illinois, Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering.

Michel Rappaz is a Professor Emeritus at the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Institute of Materials.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI026000
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
TEC021000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Material Science
TEC023000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Metallurgy