Spatial Health Inequalities: Adapting GIS Tools and Data Analysis, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Spatial Health Inequalities

Adapting GIS Tools and Data Analysis, 1st Edition

By Esra Ozdenerol

CRC Press

173 pages | 19 Color Illus. | 4 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9781498701501
pub: 2016-08-23
eBook (VitalSource) : 9781315371894
pub: 2016-08-05
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The neighborhoods and the biophysical, political, and cultural environments all play a key role in affecting health outcomes of individuals. Unequal spatial distribution of resources such as clinics, hospitals, public transportation, fresh food markets, and schools could make some communities as a whole more vulnerable and less resilient to adverse health effects. This somber reality suggests that it is rather the question of "who you are depends upon where you are" and the fact that health inequality is both a people and a place concern. That is why health inequality needs to be investigated in a spatial setting to deepen our understanding of why and how some geographical areas experience poorer health than others. This book introduces how spatial context shapes health inequalities.

Spatial Health Inequalities: Adapting GIS Tools and Data Analysis demonstrates the spatial health inequalities in six most important topics in environmental and public health, including food insecurity, birth health outcomes, infectious diseases, children’s lead poisoning, chronic diseases, and health care access. These are the topics that the author has done extensive research on and provides a detailed description of the topic from a global perspective. Each chapter identifies relevant data and data sources, discusses key literature on appropriate techniques, and then illustrates with real data with mapping and GIS techniques. This is a unique book for students, geographers, clinicians, health and research professionals and community members interested in applying GIS and spatial analysis to the study of health inequalities.


"This textbook places firmly the importance of geographic contexts to spatial health, medical geography, and geo-medicine. It is informative and instrumental for anyone who is interested in learning health inequalities and GIS applications."

—May Yuan, University of Texas at Dallas, USA

"I thoroughly enjoyed this addition to the GIS and Health canon. What is particularly nice is the focus on real-world examples allowing students to make the connection between technique, theory and actual need. The book is not overly dense on jargon meaning – it is also a good first exposure for readers with little or no GIS ability. Highly recommended as an entry point into the spatial health world."

—Andrew Curtis, Kent State University, Ohio, USA

"Dr. Ozdenerol’s book Spatial Health Inequalities: Adapting GIS Tools and Data Analysis, provides an exceptional overview of the important role of GIS in regional, national, and international health system improvement efforts and delves deep into the ways that both communities and researchers can use GIS to track and improve health. Her important work is ideally suited as a primary text for a course on GIS and can readily guide students through the many ways GIS tools and data can be employed in applied public health and health care research."

— James E. Bailey, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, USA

Table of Contents






New Emerging Trends in Health Information Technology

Current Role of GIS in the Health-Care System

Patient-Centric Applications of GIS

Population-Oriented Uses of GIS

Citizen-Contributed Geographic Information

Disease and Bioterrorism Surveillance

Geographic Characteristics of Bioterrorism Attack

Crisis/Disaster Management

Interactive Maps and Analysis Tools



Chronic Diseases



Scale Factor in Obesity Studies

Data Resources

Socioeconomic Data

Physical Environmental Data

Personal Environmental Attributes

Data Limitations


GIS’s Role in Cancer Health Disparities



Birth Health

Birth Morbidity Data

Low Birth Weight

Infant Mortality

Birth Defects



Infectious Diseases

Vector-Borne Diseases


Regional Variations of WNV Distribution

Lyme Disease

Waterborne Diseases

Airborne Diseases

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Drug Addiction



Children’s Lead Poisoning

Children’s Exposure to Lead

Data Collection Processes

Geocoding Screened Cases

Screening Techniques

Spatial Analytical Methods

Screening Activities

Risk Modeling

Environmental Risk Factors

Genetic Variation

Political Ecology



GIS’s Applications in Health-Care Access

GIS’s Role in Determining Disparities in Health-Care Access

Data for Health Services Resources and Planning

Data Limitations in Small-Area Health-Care Variation Studies

Spatial Issues in Rural and Regional Health Disparities

Health Profession Distribution

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Intervention Measures



About the Author

Esra Ozdenerol has been an associate professor in the Department of Earth Sciences of the University of Memphis since 2003. She is also affiliated with the Departments of Preventive Medicine and Health Outcome Policy of the University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee. She is the director of the GIS Certificate Program at the University of Memphis. She also directs the Spatial Analysis and Geographic Education Laboratory in the Department of Earth Sciences. Dr. Ozdenerol was the associate director of Benjamin L. Hooks Institute for Social Change of the University of Memphis from 2010 to 2013. She obtained her doctorate in geography in 2000 and her master of landscape architecture in 1996 from the Louisiana State University. She received her bachelor of science in landscape architecture and agricultural engineering from the University of Ankara, Turkey. Before joining the University of Memphis, she was an assistant professor of architecture at the Florida International University in Miami from 2000 to 2003. Dr. Ozdenerol specializes in geographic information systems and has served as a technical consultant to various public, government, and international agencies. Her current research interests entail the use of the geospatial technologies (including geographic information, remote sensing, and cartographic and geostatistical analyses) in a diverse range of public and environmental health issues. Her latest publications involve studies about spatial health inequalities.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MEDICAL / Public Health
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Remote Sensing & Geographic Information Systems