Spinoza (1929) offers an ‘estimate’ of Spinoza – his life, philosophy and influences – while retaining, as far as possible through translation, ‘the very words Spinoza wrote’. Thereby the two essential things needed for a thorough appreciation of Spinoza are combined.

    Part 1. The Man and His Work  1. Life and Character  2. Works  3. General Outlook  Part 2. Spinoza’s Philosophy  4. ‘God or Nature’  5. Nature as a System of Modes  6. Human Beings as Parts of Nature  7. The Grades of Knowledge and Conduct  Part 3. Spinoza’s Place in History  8. Spinoza and the Criticism of his Contemporaries  9. Spinoza in European Thought from Leibniz to Hegel  10. Spinoza’s Sources and Significance


    Leon Roth