The Integration of Biological, Ecological and Geochemical Processes
In this authoritative review, leading international researchers explore the growing range of applications of stable isotope techniques for probing and integrating biological processes and palaeoclimatic cycles. The interdisciplinary approach covers a wide range of issues, opportunities and developments, setting interactions with plants in the context of water and nutrient cycles, exchanges with the atmosphere and modelling past and present climate change.
This important book will appeal to those requiring an overview of the use of stable isotopes in aquatic, terrestrial and climatic processes and is in tune with current global concerns. In addition postgraduates and research scientists will find an extensive guide to more specialist disciplines, including developing mass spectrometer technologies, compound-specific and cellular-discrimination processes or whole organism and ecosystem responses.
Table of Contents
Contributors -- Abbreviations and symbols -- Introduction -- Section 1. Isotope sources, analysis and interpretation of organic composition -- 1. High-precision deuterium and BC measurement by continuous flow-IRMS: organic and position-specific isotope analysis /J. T Brenna, H.J. Tobias and TN. Corso -- Introduction -- CF-IRMS analysis of HD /H2 -- Carbon isotopes: automated position-specific isotope analysis (PSIA) -- References -- 2. Carbon isotope effects on key reactions in plant metabolism and BC-patterns in natural compounds /H.-L. Schmidt and G. Gleixner -- Introduction -- Influence of carboxylations on the initial "C distribution pattern -- Influence of aldol reactions and decarboxylations on secondary distribution patterns -- Ester and aldol reactions during secondary metabolism -- Effect of other lyase reactions -- Reactions involving C,-metabolism /Isotope effects on reactions introducing hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen in biological compounds -- Conclusion -- References -- 3. Interpretation of oxygen isotope composition of leaf material /G.D. Farquhar, M.M. Barbour and B.K. Henry -- Why are we interested in the oxygen isotope ratio of organic matter? -- Oxygen isotopes in plant organic matter: a historical perspective -- On the enrichment of 18 0 in water within the plant -- Variation within the leaf -- Isotopic exchange of oxygen during metabolism -- Isotopic history of oxygen in organic molecules -- The potential for oxygen isotopes in evaluating plant water use -- Oxygen isotope composition of organic matter: methodology and analysis -- References -- Appendix 1 -- Appendix 2 -- 4. Intramolecular deuterium distributions and plant growth conditions /J. Schleucher -- Introduction -- Methodology -- Variation of intramolecular D distributions -- Discussion and outlook -- References -- Section 2. Soils, nutrients and plants -- 5. Stable isotope studies of soil nitrogen /D. W. Hop kins, R.E. Wheatley and D. Robinson -- Introduction -- Transformations of soil nitrogen -- Distribution of soil nitrogen -- Spatial variability of soil N -- Use of 15N natural abundance to investigate soil processes -- Conclusions -- References -- 6. 15N at natural abundance levels in terrestrial vascular plants: a precis /L.L. Handley, C.M. Scrimgeour and ].A. Raven -- Introduction -- What are the patterns in the 815N signal? -- Experimental systems -- Needs for research -- References -- 7. Variations in fractionation of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in higher plants : N metabolism and partitioning in phloem and xylem /T Yoneyama, H. Fujiwara and J.M. Wilson -- Introduction -- Acquisition of nitrogen -- Metabolism of nitrogen -- Translocation of nitrogen -- C and N concentration and isotope composition in castor bean (Ricinus communis) -- Conclusions and future directions -- References -- Section 3. Photosynthesis, plants and water -- 8. Carbon isotope discrimination in terrestrial plants: carboxylations and decarboxylations /j.S. Gillon, A.M. Borland, K.G. Harwood, A. Roberts, M.S.J. Broadmeadow and H. Griffiths -- Introduction -- Net carbon isotope discrimination -- Photosynthetic discrimination -- Respiratory discrimination -- Refixation of respiratory CO2 -- Discrimination under natural conditions -- Conclusions -- References -- 9. Carbon isotope discrimination in structural and non-structural carbohydrates in relation to productivity and adaptation to unfavourable conditions /E. Brugnoli, A. Scartazza, M. Lauteri, M.C. Monteverdi and C. Mdguas -- Introduction -- Theoretical background to carbon isotope discrimination -- WUE and plant productivity -- Carbon isotope discrimination in soluble carbohydrates and productivity -- Soluble carbohydrate 13 C and CO2 mesophyll conductance -- Concluding remarks -- References -- 10. Oxygen-18 of leaf water: a crossroad for plant-associated isotopic signals /D. Yakir -- Introduction -- Evaporative enrichment -- Source water -- Atmospheric moisture and boundary layers -- Bulk leaf water -- 2-D simulation of 18 0 in leaf water -- 18 0 of water in chloroplasts -- Conclusions -- References -- 11. The role of hydrogen and oxygen stable isotopes in understanding water movement along the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum /TE. Dawson, R.C. Pausch, H.M. Parker -- Introduction -- Stable isotopes and our understanding of water movement along the soil-plant-atmospheric continuum -- Future research on isotopes and the SPAC -- References -- Section 4. Integration of terrestrial ecosystems -- 12. Oxygen isotope effects during CO2 exchange: from leaf to ecosystem processes /L.B. Flanagan -- Introduction -- Discrimination against C180160 during photosynthetic gas exchange -- Oxygen isotope effects during respiratory CO2 exchange -- Relative influence of photosynthesis, respiration and turbulent fluxes on the isotope ratio of atmospheric CO2 in plant canopies -- Regional and global variation in the influence of terrestrial ecosystems on the oxygen isotope ratio of atmospheric CO2 -- References -- 13. Carbon isotope discrimination of terrestrial ecosystems /N. Buchmann, R.]. Brooks, L.B. Flanagan and ].R. Ehleringer -- Introduction -- Methodology -- Variation in ����, estimates -- Conclusions -- References -- 14. Assessing sensitivity to change in desert ecosystems - a stable isotope approach /J.R. Ehleringer, R.D. Evans and D. Williams -- Introduction -- Deserts as pulse-driven ecosystems -- Water uptake patterns by aridland plants -- Stomata! limitations as inferred from carbon isotope ratios -- Nitrogen sources -- Sensitivity of Colorado Plateau arid land ecosystems to invasions -- Conclusions -- References -- Section 5. Integration of marine ecosystems -- 15. Carbon stable isotope fractionation in marine systems: open ocean studies and laboratory studies /A.M. Johnston and H. Kennedy -- Introduction -- Open ocean studies -- Laboratory studies -- Recommendations for future research -- References -- 16. 15N and the assimilation of nitrogen by marine phytoplankton: the past, present and future? /N.J.P. Owens and L.J. Watts -- Introduction -- The past - a short historical review -- Natural abundance v tracer studies -- The present - methods and techniques -- The present - a discussion of results from recent studies -- The future - possible developments for 15N studies in biological oceanography -- Summary and conclusions -- References -- Section 6. The immediate past: the Holocene /17. Archaeological reconstruction using stable isotopes -- A.M. Pollard -- Introduction -- Isotope archaeology -- Dietary reconstruction using stable isotopes -- Isotopes and human mobility -- Summary -- References -- 18. Stable isotopes in tree ring cellulose /R. Switsur and J. Waterhouse -- Introduction -- Atmospheric carbon dioxide and carbon stable isotope ratios -- Hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios -- References -- Section 7. Palaeoclimatic reconstructions from Precambrian to Quaternary -- 19. Phylogeny, palaeoatmospheres and the evolution of phototrophy /J.A. Raven -- Introduction -- The phylogeny of 02 -producing phototrophs and their carboxylases -- Timing of origin of taxa of 02-evolving phototrophs in relation to changes in atmospheric composition -- The contribution of IJC /12C measurements to our understanding of the evolution of phototrophy -- Is the IJCO,f 12C02 discrimination factor of RUBISCO subject to direct natural selection? -- Conclusions and prospects -- References -- 20. Modelling changes in land plant function over the Phanerozoic /D.j. Beerling and FI. Woodward -- Introduction -- Atmospheric evolution -- Phanerozoic changes in leaf function -- Terrestrial productivity in the Carboniferous -- Global patterns of leaf carbon isotope composition -- Concluding remarks -- References -- 21. Carbon isotopes, diets of North American equids, and the evolution of North American C4 grasslands /TE. Cerling, J.M. Harris and B.j. McFadden -- Introduction -- Sampling protocol and sources of material -- Transition to C4 diet in equids: occurrence of C4-dominated diets, hypsodonty, and the radiation of equid genera -- Geographical and temporal distribution of C4 grasses in North America -- Regional patterns and variations -- History of C4 grasses versus C4 grasslands in North America -- Equid diversity during the Neogene -- Global expansion of C4 ecosystems -- Summary and implications -- References -- 22. Carbon isotopes in lake sediments and peats of last glacial age: implications for the global carbon cycle /FA. Street-Perrott, Y Huang, R.A. Perrott and G. Eglinton -- Introduction -- The carbon cycle at the LGM -- Carbon-isotope data on total organic matter from lake sediments and peats -- Molecular-isotopic analyses: a case study from Sacred Lake, Mt. Kenya -- Influence of source carbon, fractionation and transformation on 13C record of last glaciation -- Conclusions -- References -- Section 8. Climate change, the hydrological cycle and atmospheric processes -- 23. Stable isotopes, the hydrological cycle and the terrestrial biosphere /J.R. Gat -- Introduction -- Hydrological processes at the land /atmosphere interface -- The isotope signature imposed by processes at the surface on the hydrological cycle -- The effect of the plant cover on the hydrological cycle -- Conclusions -- References -- 24. The 18O /16O isotope ratio of atmospheric CO2 and its role in global carbon cycle research /P Ciais and HA.J. Meijer -- General introduction and outline -- The 180 / 1"0 isotope ratio of atmospheric CO2 : basic features -- A very simple model for the concentration, the &13C and the &180 of atmospheric CO2 -- Towards a realistic model of 31 '0 in atmospheric CO2 : calculation of the surface fluxes -- Results and discussion of 3D model -- Conclusions -- References -- Index.
Griffiths, H. Department of Agricultural and Environmental Science, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Ridley Building, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK.
'This excellent book provides the interested reader with the tools to make an informed assessment of published results: for the practitioner, it will be a rich source of references This is a splendid review which, if you are interested in ecological processes, is well worth a read.' - SGM Quarterley
'The book is a compendium of expert knowledge resulting from the Stable Isotopes Symposium held in the United Kingdom in July 1996.' - New Zealand Journal of Agriculture Research
'Overall I would recommend this book particularly to students of plant biochemistry...the book is a very good reference in itself, and as each chapter cites numerous current studies, it is also a valuable resource for primary references.' - The Quarterley Review of Biology