Statistical Detection and Surveillance of Geographic Clusters: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Statistical Detection and Surveillance of Geographic Clusters

1st Edition

By Peter Rogerson, Ikuho Yamada

Chapman and Hall/CRC

324 pages | 85 B/W Illus.

Purchasing Options:$ = USD
Hardback: 9781584889359
pub: 2008-12-24
SAVE ~$24.00
eBook (VitalSource) : 9780429148439
pub: 2008-12-24
from $60.00

FREE Standard Shipping!


The widespread popularity of geographic information systems (GIS) has led to new insights in countless areas of application. It has facilitated not only the collection and storage of geographic data, but also the display of such data. Building on this progress by using an integrated approach, Statistical Detection and Monitoring of Geographic Clusters provides the statistical tools to identify whether data on a given map deviates significantly from expectations and to determine quickly whether new point patterns are emerging over time.

The book begins with a review of statistical methods for cluster detection, organized according to the different types of hypotheses and questions about clustering that can be investigated. It then delineates methods that allow for the quick detection of emergent geographic clusters.

The book delivers a cohesive presentation unlike that of most edited volumes. Drawing on the authors' extensive work in the field, the book delineates methods in such a way that they can be applied, almost instantly, to an array of disciplines. The readily applicable methods the book describes are useful for a multitude of problems in a variety of fields, particularly disease surveillance in the public health industry. Statistical Detection and Monitoring of Geographic Clusters is an essential volume for your reference shelf.


Researchers in a surprisingly diverse range of disciplines find themselves faced with problems needing the methods that are described in this book: the detection of anomalous groupings of objects or events within geographical distributions. … Chapters 7–10 [explore] methods for the prospective detection of changes as they occur. This area is rapidly becoming increasingly important in applications such as detecting outbreaks of disease, fraud and even potential terrorist activity. The book is liberally illustrated with real examples and data … a good introduction to the ideas for students encountering them for the first time.

Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, 2010

Attractive features of this book are: (1) introduction of various statistical methods/tests for geographic clusters and surveillance, (2) many figures and tables to facilitate understanding, and (3) illustration of each method with real data. … readers who are particularly interested in surveillance will find this book a helpful guide.

Journal of the American Statistical Association, Sept. 2010, Vol. 105, No. 491

In contrast to most edited books, the authors’ text provides a comprehensive presentation that will provide a valuable reference source for years to come. I recommend that anyone working with geographic information systems (GIS) consult this volume, as there are many valuable nuggets of information—many unexpected!

International Statistical Review, 2009

Table of Contents

Introduction and Overview

Setting the Stage

The Roles of Spatial Statistics in Public Health and Other Fields

Limitations Associated with the Visualization of Spatial Data

Some Fundamental Concepts and Distinctions

Types of Tests for Clustering

Structure of the Book

Software Resources and Sample Data

Introductory Spatial Statistics: Description and Inference


Mean Center

Median Center

Standard Distance

Relative Standard Distance

Inferential Statistical Tests of Central Tendency and Dispersion


Angular Data

Characteristics of Spatial Processes: First-Order and Second-Order Variation

Kernel Density Estimation


Differences and Ratios of Kernel Density Estimators

Differences in K-Functions

Global Statistics


Nearest Neighbor Statistic

Quadrat Methods

Spatial Dependence: Moran’s I

Geary’s C

A Comparison of Moran’s I and Geary’s C

Oden’s Ipop Statistic

Tango’s Statistic and a Spatial Chi-Square Statistic

Getis and Ord’s Global Statistic

Case–Control Data: The Cuzick–Edwards Test

A Global Quadrat Test of Clustering for Case–Control Data

A Modified Cuzick–Edwards Test

Local Statistics


Local Moran Statistic

Score Statistic

Tango’s CF Statistic

Getis’ Gi Statistic

Stone’s Test

Modeling around Point Sources with Case–Control Data

Cumulative and Maximum Chi-Square Tests as Focused Tests

The Local Quadrat Test and an Introduction to Multiple Testing via the M-Test

Tests for the Detection of Clustering, Including Scan Statistics


Openshaw et al.’s Geographical Analysis Machine (GAM)

Besag and Newell’s Test for the Detection of Clusters

Fotheringham and Zhan’s Method

Cluster Evaluation Permutation Procedure

Exploratory Spatial Analysis Approach of Rushton and Lolonis

Kulldorff’s Spatial Scan Statistic with Variable Window Size

Bonferroni and Sidak Adjustments

Improvements on the Bonferroni Adjustment

Rogerson’s Statistical Method for the Detection of Geographic Clustering

Retrospective Detection of Changing Spatial Patterns


The Knox Statistic for Space–Time Interaction

Test for a Change in Mean for a Series of Normally Distributed Observations

Retrospective Detection of Change in Multinomial Probabilities

Introduction to Statistical Process Control and Nonspatial Cumulative Sum Methods of Surveillance


Shewhart Charts

Cumulative Sum (Cusum) Methods

Monitoring Small Counts

Cumulative Sums for Poisson Variables

Cusum Methods for Exponential Data

Other Useful Modifications for Cusum Charts

More on the Choice of Cusum Parameters

Other Methods for Temporal Surveillance

Spatial Surveillance and the Monitoring of Global Statistics

Brief Overview of the Development of Methods for Spatial Surveillance

Introduction to Monitoring Global Spatial Statistics

Cumulative Sum Methods and Global Spatial Statistics That Are Observed Periodically

CUSUM Methods and Global Spatial Statistics That Are Updated Periodically

Summary and Discussion

Cusum Charts for Local Statistics and for the Simultaneous Monitoring of Many Regions

Monitoring around a Predefined Location

Spatial Surveillance: Separate Charts for Each Region

Monitoring Many Local Statistics Simultaneously



More Approaches to the Statistical Surveillance of Geographic Clustering


Monitoring Spatial Maxima

Multivariate Cusum Approaches

Summary:Associated Tests for Cluster Detection and Surveillance


Associated Retrospective Statistical Tests

Associated Prospective Statistical Tests: Regional Surveillance for Quick Detection of Change


Author Index

Subject Index

About the Series

Chapman & Hall/CRC Interdisciplinary Statistics

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MATHEMATICS / Probability & Statistics / General
MEDICAL / Public Health
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Remote Sensing & Geographic Information Systems